Note: For the questions only, go to: hebrews1.htm Intro. Consider the Research question No. 1: Are there any indications in the book as to who its author might be? 1. We are not given the name of its author, nor the name of those to whom it was written. a. The book is called "Hebrews" because the writer addressed those who were well acquainted with the Law of Moses. 2. Since Timothy was a close companion and worker with Paul, verses 23-24 of chapter 13 indicates that Paul was the author of the book. a. However, we realize that it could have been written by Luke or some other author. The epistle was given to encourage the Jewish Christians to endure under persecutions and to remain faithful to Christ. He gives many exhortations with his famous "let us" expressions. These exhortations apply to us as well. Chart #1 - "LET US" 4:1 - let us fear 4:11 - lest us...enter that rest 4:14 - let us hold fast our confession 4:16 - let us come boldly to the throne of grace 6:1 - let us go on to perfection 10:22 - let us draw near with a true heart 10:23 - let us hold fast our confession 10:24 - let us consider one another 12:1a - let us lay aside every weight 12:1b - let us run with endurance the race 13:13 - let us go forth to Him, outside the camp 13:15 - let us continually offer the sacrifice The superiority of Jesus Christ is clearly the theme of the book. Chart #2 - The Superiority of Christ TO: The Prophets Angels Moses Aaron IN HIS: Revelation Salvation Service Priesthood Covenant Sacrifice LESSON ONE: Hebrews 1:1-4 - God speaks to us today through His Son 1. How had God spoken to the fathers? Chart #3 - How God Spoke To The Fathers 1. "In Time Past" a. From creation to Malachi b. There had been 400 years of silence 2. "By The Prophets" a. One who speaks forth for God b. 2 Pet. 1:20-21 3. "At Various Times" a. God did not reveal all truth at one time under the O.C. b. It was revealed part by part over about 1000 years. 4. "And In Different Ways" a. By visions and dreams (Num. 12:6) b. By angels (Dan. 9:20-27) c. By voice (1 Sam. 3:4-14) d. By the Urim (Num. 27:21) e. By the prophets (Neh. 9:30) 2. How do verses 1 and 2 indicate that the New Testament of Christ is the final revelation? 1. "Hath at the end of these days" (ASV) 2. Jesus is that last great prophet which was to come. Acts 3:22-23 3. It was first spoken by Jesus and then by those who were commissioned by Him. Heb. 2:1-4 4. We are in the last age now. 1 Cor. 10:11; Heb. 9:26 3. From 1:2-3, list the expressions which describe the Son. Chart #4 - DESCRIPTIONS OF OUR SPOKESMAN 1. SON - "Son" (John 3:16) 2. INHERITOR - "heir of all things" (Gal. 4:7; Psalm 2:7-8) 3. CREATOR - "through whom also He made the worlds" (Col. 1:16) 4. DIVINE - "the brightness of His glory and the express image of His person" (John 14:8-10; Col. 2:9 5. SUSTAINER - "upholding all things by the word of His power" (Col. 1:17) 6. REDEEMER - "He had by Himself purged our sins" (Heb. 9:13-14) 7. THE EXALTED ONE - "sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high" (Matt. 28:18; Eph. 1:20-23 4. What do verses 2 and 3 show regarding Jesus' relation to God the Father? 1. The Son is the radiance of the Father's glory. a. John 1:18 - The Son declared (Greek: "exegeted" - explained, clarified, exposed) the Father. b. "If you have seen me, you have seen the Father." John 14:6-9 2. The Son is the express image of the Father's person. a. The Son is "the exact representation of His nature." (NASV) b. Christ has all the essential marks and characteristics of Deity; hence, He is Deity. Col. 2:9; John 10:30 5. How does Christ uphold all things? 1. "By the word of His power." 2. Let us consider research question No. 4 here: What other passage (or passages) show that the universe (or world) is held together by Christ? a. "In Him all things consists." Col. 1:15-17 b. The earth is built and sustained on "pillars" or "foundations." 1 Sam. 2:8; Psalm 75:3; 104:5 c. We move and have our being in God. Acts 17:28 d. Thus, not only has Christ created all things, but He upholds and sustains all things by His omnipotent power and energy. 6. What did Jesus accomplish before He sat down at the right hand of the Father? 1. He made purification for sin. 2. God testified through Moses that without the shedding of blood there is no atonement (Lev 17:11), and without atonement, there could be no purification from sin (Lev. 16:30) 3. Through the one offering we are perfected. Heb. 10:10-14 4. The finishing of purification was followed by exaltation. a. He sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high. Dan. 7:13-14; 1 Pet. 3:22 b. "On the right hand" represents the place of highest honor and authority. c. The word "Majesty" is used here to denote God Himself, the Majestic One. 7. What is the "more excellent name" to which the Hebrew writer was referring? 1. As shown in the verses that follow: "My Son." 2. Many of the Hebrews did not recognize the magnitude of authority in the Messiah. a. They were thinking that since he Law of Moses was ordained and mediated through angels, it was therefore superior to the will of the Messiah. 3. As he continues, the writer of Hebrews reveals how much greater the Son is than the angels. RESEARCH 1. Are there any indications in the book as to who its author might be? 1. See under the introduction above. 2. Find other passages where the term "last days" is used. 1. Nearly always when we find the expression "last days," or it equivalent, in the Prophets, it refers to the N.T. age. a. The indestructible kingdom would be set up. Dan. 2:28,44 b. The mountain of the Lord's house would be established. Isa. 2:2; Micah 4:1 c. The Spirit of the Lord would be poured out on all flesh. Joel 2:28-32; Acts 2:16-21 2. There are a few exceptions; e.g., Gen. 49:1 3. God has spoken to us today through His Son. How does one go about showing that the New Testament of Christ is the spoken word of the Son? 1. Chart #5 - AUTHORITY God God has all authority - Rev. 19:6; Rom. 3:4 Willed all things according to His good pleasure - Eph. 1:9 Christ All authority delegated to Christ - Matt. 28:18; Eph. 1:20-23; Col. 3:17 Today God speaks through His Son - Heb. 1:1-2 Holy Spirit The promise of the Father - Luke 24:49; Acts 1:4-5 Sent in the name of Jesus - John 14:26; 16:13-14 Would guide into all truth - John 14:26; 15:26; 16:12-14 Confirmed their word with signs - Heb. 2:4; 2 Cor. 12:12 Apostles & Prophets Jesus delegated His authority to the apostles - John 20:21-23; 13:20; 17:6-8 Laying on of apostles hands - Acts 8:14-19;19:6; 2 Tim. 1:6 Writings They gave us the N.T. - John 20:30-31; 1 Cor. 14:37 This final and complete revelation must not be altered or perverted - Jude 3; Gal. 1:6-9; 2 John 9-11; Rev. 22:18-19 To Us When we read, we can understand - Eph. 3:3-5 Properly implanted, it can save - James 1:21; 2 Tim. 3:15 The Word effectually works in believers - 1 Thess. 2:13 4. What other passage (or passages) show that the universe (or world) is held together by Christ? 1. See answer under No. 5 above. 5. The "Jesus only" people teach that the Father and the Son are the same divine being manifested in different forms. How do verses 1-4 refute this idea? 1. God has spoken "by" or "through" His Son. There would be no need to state "through His Son" if He Himself is the Son. 2. He would not be "appointing" the Son heir of all things, if He Himself is the Son. 3. He would not be making the worlds "through" the Son, if He Himself is the Son. 4. The Son would not be the brightness of the Father's glory, if the Son is the Father. 5. The Son would not be the "express image" of the Father if the Son is the Father. 6. How could the Son sit down on the right hand of Himself? LESSON TWO: Hebrews 1:5-2:4 - Christ is superior to the angels 1. From 1:4-14, make a brief list of the things which show how Christ is superior to the angels. Chart #6 - "Having become so much better than the angels" - Heb. 1:4-14 1. Heb. 1:4b - a more excellent name a. Obtained by inheritance (after His death) a name corresponding to His new rank, exaltation (Phil. 1:9-11). 2. Heb. 1:5a - Psalm 2:7 a. No angel was THE Son of God. b. The day is the day He was resurrected (Acts 13:33-34). 3. Heb. 1:5b - 2 Sam. 7:14 a. Jesus had a unique relationship to God (John 10:30-36). b. No angel held this relationship. 4. Heb. 1:6 - Psalm 97:7 a. Jesus is the firstborn One of rank and eminence (Col. 1:15). b. Only God is worthy of worship (Rev. 22:8-9). 5. Heb. 1:7 - Psalm 104:4 a. Angels were created. b. They are God's ministers. 6. Heb. 1:8-9 - Psalm 45:6-7 a. Jesus is God (John 1:1; Col. 2:9). b. He is King, the Anointed of God. 7. Heb. 1:10-12 - Psalm 102:25-27 a. Christ is Creator (Col. 1:16). b. Christ is Unchanging and Eternal (Heb. 13:8). 8. Heb. 1:13-14 - Psalm 110:1 a. No angel had these words of Kingship said to them. b. Angels are just ministering spirits. Extra notes: 1. 1:7 - He makes His angels "a flame of fire." This perhaps refers to God using angels to carry out His vengeance on the wicked. 2. 1:14 - Angels have worked, and continue to work, in various ways in aiding the righteous. Matt. 18:10; Luke 16:22; Acts 5:19; 8:26; 10:1-8; 12:7-10, 23; Rev. 22:8-9 2. What exhortation (or commandment) does the writer give in 2:1 concerning the danger of drifting? Chart #7 - The Danger Of Drifting THE BASIS - "Therefore" THE EXHORTATION - "We must give the more earnest heed" THE DANGER - "Lest we drift away" THE REASON - "If the word spoken through angels proved steadfast...how shall we escape if we neglect...?" Drifting can be very dangerous because it can go completely unnoticed. "To young men were fishing above a low dam on a river near their hometown. As they were concentrating on catching fish, they were unaware that they had drifted until they were not far from the water flowing over the dam. When they realized their situation, the current near the dam had become too powerful for them to keep their boat from going over. Below the dam the water was dashing with strong force over great boulders and through crevices in the rocks. Caught by the swirling waters under the rocks, they never came to the surface. After days of relentless searching, the divers finally found one body, and then, two or three days later, the other. It was a sad occasion when these two young men lost their lives in the bloom of youth. It was also a sad occasion -- one tempered with hope and thanksgiving -- when I preached the funeral of one of them, the one whom I had baptized only a week before." (By Billy Norris, from Gospel Guide) 3. What comparison was made regarding the Law of Moses which shows that we dare not neglect the great salvation? 1. "Every transgression and disobedience received a just reward." 2. Place research question No. 3 here: List some examples from the O.T. of those who received a just reward for their transgression and disobedience. 3. Examples: a. The man who gathered sticks on the Sabbath was stoned. Num. 15:32-36 b. When they offered strange fire, Nabab and Abihu were destroyed by fire. Lev. 10:1-2 c. The young man who blasphemed the name of the Lord and cursed was to be stoned. Lev. 24:11-14 d. Achan and all his family were destroyed. Joshua 7:24-25 e. The young prophet who believed a lie. 1 Kings 13:15-24 f. Uzza was struck dead when he touched the ark. 1 Chron. 13:1-10 g. King Uzziah was smitten with leprosy. 2 Chron. 26:16-20 4. If men were thus severely punished for violating the word spoken by angels, certainly, we will not escape if we fail to obey that which was spoken by the Son of God. 4. From 2:3-4, how does the writer describe the great salvation? Chart #8 - THE GREAT SALVATION First spoken by the Lord. Confirmed by those who heard Him. God also bore witness. RESEARCH 1. Jehovah's Witnesses teach that Christ was not God, but was simply a created angel. How do verses 4-14 of chapter 1 refute this idea? 1. Verse 5 - He is described as "My Son." There is no evidence whatsoever that Christ existed as an angel, as Jehovah's Witnesses teach. a. The term "begotten" refers to the resurrection as shown in Acts 13:33 2. Verse 8 - The Father says to the son, "Your throne, O God, is forever and ever." Thus, Jesus is God. 3. Verses 11-12 - They will perish (earth, heavens), but "You remain." They will be changed, but "You are the same, and Your years will not fail." Thus, Jesus is unchangeable and eternal. 2. Verse 2 of chapter 2 mentions the Law of Moses as the word "spoken by angels." What other verses mention this also? 1. Acts 7:53; Gal. 3:19; Deut. 33:2; Psalm 68:17 3. List some examples from the O.T. of those who received a just reward for their transgression and disobedience. 1. See the list under No. 3 above. 4. List other passages which show that those who neglect the great salvation will not escape. 1. Matt. 25:25-30; Rom. 2:5; 2 Thess. 1:7-9; 1 Thess. 5:3; Heb. 10:29; 12:25 LESSON THREE: Hebrews 2:5-18 - The Savior was made perfect through sufferings 1. What is the overall theme of 2:5-8? 1. "The Savior was made perfect through sufferings," or "Christ became a little lower than the angels," or "Reasons Christ accepted a lower state." Chart #9 - WHY DID CHRIST BECOME A LITTLE LOWER THAN THE ANGELS? 1. To become the ruler of the world to come - 2:5-9 2. To become the author of salvation - 2:10 3. To become our brother - 2:11-13 4. To become our deliverer from death - 2:14-16 5. To become our High Priest - 2:17-18 Place Research question No. 1 here: To what does the expression "the world to come" in 2:5 refer? 1. The expression "the world to come" is "Literally, 'the inhabited earth in the future.' The Jewish dispensation was called by the Jews 'the present world.' A dispensation following it would be 'the world to come.'" (Johnson's Notes, p. 301) 2. Notice his expression, "Of which we speak." a. Those who spoke of the great salvation (2:3-4) were speaking of the blessings coming to man, not angels. 2. Who was made a little lower than the angels? 1. Man in general (2:5-8) and Jesus (2:9) 2. He quotes Psalm 8:4-6, a wonderful passage which speaks of the greatness of God and how He has blessed man. a. After the Psalmist said, "You have put all things under his feet," he goes on to name various classifications of animals. (Psalm 8:7-8) b. The Hebrew writer continued, "But now we do not yet see all things put under him." i. Man is still subject to harmful things on this earth; e.g., disease and death. ii. Also, the things of the next world are not yet under him. 1 Cor. 6:3 3. What was God's purpose in making the author of salvation perfect through sufferings? 1. To bring many sons to glory. 2. Chart #10 - Christ made a little lower than the angels Extra Notes: 1. Verse 9 shows how Jesus was made a littler than the angels - "for the suffering of death." It does not mean that he was not fully God while here on earth. 2. In verse 10, the expression "for whom are all things and by whom are all things" refers to the Father. a. Through Christ's sufferings, He became "perfect" or "fully qualified" to bring about man's salvation. Heb. 7:25 3. In verse 11, the expression "For both He who sanctifies and those who are being sanctified are all of one" shows that both Christ (the author of salvation - vs. 10) and all those who are sanctified are of the same heavenly family. 4. What "release" or "deliverance" was brought through the death of Jesus? 1. "Release those who through fear of death were all their lifetime subject to bondage." (2:15) 2. Also, through His death He destroyed (made inoperative) the devil who had the power of death. 3. The devil had the power of death, because he introduced sin into the world which brought about death. a. By providing remission of sins, Jesus destroyed the devil's power of death. b. Through Jesus, we can escape the fear of death. c. Man, from ancient times, has always looked at death as an exceedingly terrible thing. d. Through Christ, we can now face death with serenity and confidence. Place Research question No. 3 here: From 2:14, in what sense has the devil been destroyed? If he has been destroyed, why does evil continue to be present in this world? 1. See also Rev. 20:1-2. Satan is bound in much the same way as a dog chained to a wire between two trees. The dog can manipulate only within the limited distance between the trees and to the length of the chain from side to side. Likewise, Satan is bound and cannot tempt men above that which they are able to bear (1 Cor. 10:13). 5. Which verse shows that Jesus did not bring aid to angels, but to the seed of Abraham? 1. Verse 16 - The "spiritual" seed of Abraham. Gal. 3:7,29; Rom. 4:12 2. In this sense, we are blessed above the angels. 6. Why is Christ well-fitted to aid those who are tempted? 1. Because in all things He was made like His brethren. 2. Since He suffered and was tempted, He is able to aid those who suffer and are tempted. Heb. 4:14-16 Extra Notes: 1. He is a merciful and faithful High Priest (2:17). a. Friends of this world do not compare to Him, because they do not know our innermost thoughts and feelings. b. It is comforting to know that there is One in heaven who knows and understands our problems. 2. He made propitiation ("reconciliation" KJV; "atonement" NIV "expiation" RSV) for the sins of the people. a. This refers to God's wrath against sinners being satisfied by the death of Christ. Rom. 3:23-26 RESEARCH 1. To what does the expression "the world to come" in 2:5 refer? 1. See under No. 1 above. 2. From 2:5-18, make a list of all the verses which are quoted from the Old Testament. Heb. 2:6-8 - Psalm 8:4-6 Heb. 2:12 - Psalm 22:22 Heb. 2:13a - 2 Sam. 22:3; Psalm 16:1; 91:2 Heb. 2:13b - Isa. 8:18 3. From 2:14, in what sense has the devil been destroyed? If he has been destroyed, why does evil continue to be present in this world? 1. See under No. 4 above. LESSON FOUR: Hebrews 3:1-19 - Christ is greater than Moses 1. From 3:1-6, in what way was Christ superior to Moses? (Show how they were alike and how they were different.) Chart #11 - CHRIST SUPERIOR TO MOSES THEY WERE ALIKE Moses Was Faithful (3:2) - Christ Was Faithful (3:2) Moses Had A House (3:5) - Christ Has A House (3:6) THEY WERE DIFFERENT Moses Was Over A House (3:3-4) - Christ Built The House (3:3-4) A Servant Over Another's House (3:5) - A Son Over His Own House (3:6) Place No. 1 from the Research questions here: 1. From 3:2, why would Christ be called an "Apostle"? 1. The word "apostle" meant literally, "one sent." Christ was sent forth from God the Father. Extra Notes: 1. "High Priest" - As the Hebrew writer continues in his epistle, he will reveal many things about Christ as our High Priest. Christ is the One who presently represents us to God the Father. 2. Vs. 2,5 - "As Moses also was faithful in all His house" - From Num. 12:7, it is possible that the pronoun "His" refers to God's House, not Moses's. 3. Vs. 5-6 - Moses was a servant in God's house (the Israelites), but Christ is the Son over His own house (the church). 4. Vs. 6 - Our continuing as part of God's house is based upon our holding firmly two things: our confidence and our rejoicing of hope. a. Vs. 6 - The word "confidence" (KJV, NKJV) is better translated "confession" because it means literally "outspokenness." In Heb. 10:23, the same Greek word is translated "confession" in the NKJV and "profession" in the KJV. 2. From 3:7-19, make a list of the evil things of which Israel was guilty. Chart #12 - In Heb. 3:16-19 Israel's Actions Are Described As: 1. Hardening their hearts (8,15,16) 2. Rebellion (vs. 8,16) 3. Testing God (vs. 8,9) 4. Going astray in their hearts (vs. 10) 5. Not knowing God's ways (vs. 10) 6. Sin (vs. 17) 7. Disobedience (vs. 18) 8. Unbelief (vs. 19) Extra Notes: 1. Verses 7-11 are a quote from Psalm 95:7-11 where the Psalmist uses the example of the earlier Israelites to warn and encourage the Israelites of his day. 2. Vs. 7 - "Today" - The "now" will be stressed in the following verses. 3. Vs. 8 - They "hardened their hearts"; they were insensitive and rebellious. 4. Vs. 9 - It wasn't that on one occasion they tested God, but they tried God repeatedly. Num. 14:22 5. Vs. 10 - They were not guilty of a simple, honest mistake. a. They had refused to know God; therefore, they were without excuse. b. They were even more "without excuse" than the Gentiles who were not witnesses of the miracles which they beheld. Rom. 1:20 3. From 3:7-19, list the verses which show God's reaction to Israel's rebellion. Chart #13 - God's Reaction To Israel's Rebellion Vs. 10 - "I was angry with that generation." Vs. 11,18 - "I swore in My wrath, 'They shall not enter My rest.'" Vs. 17 - "With whom was He angry for forty years?" Vs. 17b - "...Whose corpses fell in the wilderness?" Extra Notes: It would be a terrible thing to have God's anger resting on us. 4. From 3:7-4:1, make a list of the things the writer encourages us to do. Chart #14 - An Ancient Example For A Modern People ISRAEL 1. Hardened Their Hearts (3:8,15) 2. Rebelled (3:8,15,16) 3. Tried God (3:8,9) 4. Always Went Astray In Their Hearts (3:10) 5. Did Not Know God's Way (3:10) 6. Sinned (3:17) 7. Disobedient (3:18) 8. Unbelief (3:19) US 1. Today..Do Not Harden Your Hearts (3:7-8,15) 2. Beware Of Evil Heart Of Unbelief (3:12) 3. Exhort One Another Daily (3:13) 4. (A Statement) - If We Hold Fast Our Confidence (3:14) 5. Let Us Fear (4:1) Extra Notes: 1. Vs. 12 - "Beware" - Thus, from Israel's experiences, he warns us of the dangers facing us. 2. Vs. 13 - "Hardened" - One becomes more and more callous as he lingers in sin. a. "Deceitfulness" - Sin makes many false promises which it never fulfills. b. Someone said, "Sin appears fair, but it's vile. Sin appears pleasant, but it's destructive. Sin promises much, but it performs nothing." 3. Vs. 14 - "We have become partakers of Christ" - We are partakers of the glory and benefits received through Him. a. Our denominational friends talk a lot about "eternal security." The Bible does indeed teach regarding the security of the believer (John 5:24; Rom. 8:38-39), but it is based upon holding fast our confidence firm to the end. Phil. 3:13-14; 2 Pet. 1:10 4. Vs. 15 - "While" - This word signifies that the exhortation will not always be given. 5. Vs. 17 - "Corpses fell" - Literally: "Dismemberment"; thus, it refers to bodies rotting and falling apart, a disgusting end to those disobedient people. 5. What answers is the writer expecting to his questions in verses 16-18? In all three verses, He answers his own question with a question, and we would reply "yes." Extra Notes: 1. Verse 19 - Their "unbelief" was manifested by their lack of obedience. Their disobedience proved their unbelief. 2. The warning in these verses is that believers take heed lest they become unbelievers. RESEARCH 1. From 3:2, why would Christ be called an "Apostle"? See above under No. 1. 2. Regarding 3:13, list some suggestions as to what we might do to help our fellow Christians from being hardened. 1. He said to "exhort one another daily." We must stay in contact to accomplish this. This can be done by: phone calls, cards, visits, etc. 2. Daily exhortation would have been easy for those churches who met daily. Acts 2:46-47; 19:9 3. We can't exhort every single member on a daily basis, but we can exhort those in our own homes. 3. From 3:1-4:1, make a list which shows "once saved always saved" cannot be true. 1. Vs. 12 - "In departing from the living God." One cannot depart from a place he has never been. As a country boy once said, "You can't no more depart from where you ain't never been than you can come back from someplace you ain't never gone!" 2. In 3:1-4:1, the Hebrew writer uses the example of the Israelites to warn us. The doctrine of "once saved always saved" makes the warnings impossible and absurd. 3. To refute "once saved always saved, one needs to have in his arsenal passages which clearly demonstrate that the inspired writers were referring to Christians (children of God). This destroys their convenient dodge: "If they are lost, they weren't saved to begin with." Chart #15 - Things Children of God Can Do: 1. Fall from grace - Gal. 5:1-4,13 2. Be led away with error - 2 Pet. 3:17 3. Err from the truth - James 5:19-20 4. Weak brother may perish - 1 Cor. 8:11 5. Fall into condemnation - James 5:12 6. Be moved away from the hope - Col. 1:23 7. Deny the Lord who bought them - 2 Pet. 2:1 8. Depart from the living God - Heb. 3:12 9. Can be a castaway - 1 Cor. 9:27 LESSON FIVE: Hebrews 4:1-13 - There remains a rest for the people of God 1. According to 4:2, why were those to whom the gospel was first preached not profited? 1. "Not being mixed with faith in those who heard it." a. The word "mixed" in the Greek means "to combine or assimilate; to mix with, temper together." (Strong) b. The word of God produces and nourishes faith in the hearts of those who are receptive to it. Place No. 1 of the Research questions here: 1. From 4:2, what "gospel" was preached to Israel? They had heard the "good news" regarding God's offer of rest. See also Heb. 4:6 2. What proof does the writer give to show there remains a rest to the people of God? Chart #16 - Proof There Remains A Rest 1. A promise remains (4:1). 2. We, too, have the same good news (4:2-3). 3. God has a rest that has not yet been realized by His people (4:4-9). 4. The rest will be a rest from our works (4:10; Rev. 14:13; John 9:4). "Let us therefore be diligent to enter that rest..." (4:11). 3. Which verse shows his conclusion to his line of reasoning? Verse 9 Extra Notes: 4:3 1. "For we who have believed do enter that rest" - We do so in promise now, but in actuality later. 2. "My rest" - God has a rest Himself. He had planned from the beginning for man to share in it. 3. "Although the works were finished from the foundation of the world." - God's rest has been occurring since the foundation of the world. 4:4 - God's rest is a type of man's rest after death, as is also shown in verse 10. 4:5 - The phrase from Psalm 95:11 reveals that the rest was not yet obtained. He continues to develop this fact in verses 6-9. Verse 7 - "After such a long time" 1. This refers to the time from the Israelites in the wilderness to David. This was about 450 years. Acts 13:18-222 2. After all those years, God's promise of rest is renewed. 3. Verse 7 shows that David was the author of Psalm 95. 4:8 - Joshua did not give them the rest to which God was referring. 1. The name "Joshua" in the Greek is "Jesus," the same as the Hebrew name "Joshua." 4. To which "rest" is 4:10 referring? 1. He is referring to the rest the faithful who have died receive. Rev. 14:13 2. God created the universe and all things therein in six days and has been resting ever since. 5. What exhortation ("let us") does he give regarding the rest? 1. The word "diligent" means "to use speed, i.e. to make effort, be prompt or earnest...endeavour, labour, study." (Strong) a. See Eph. 4:3 and 2 Tim. 2:15 where the same word is used. b. Thus, we need to be earnest, diligently laboring, making every effort to enter the eternal rest. 2. The word "disobedience" means "disbelief (obstinate and rebellious); disobedience, unbelief." (Strong) a. The word carries the idea of one who will not be persuaded, who will not believe; hence, he is obstinate, rebellious, disobedient. b. John 6:29 - The one who does not believe in Jesus Christ is disobedient in God's sight. 6. From 4:12, make a list of what the Word of God is and does. What it is: living, active, powerful, sharp What it does: pierces, discerns The word not only guides and instructs, but censers and condemns. "Obviously, the dividing of the soul and spirit and of the joints and marrow is not to be understood literally; if it were, reading the Bible would necessitate a trip to the doctor or to the morgue. The figurative language means that the word is able to pierce our innermost being, dealing with our most basic character, our inner disposition, our deepest thoughts and purposes. This involves being a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart. Vine defines "discerner" as "that which relates to judging, fit for, or skilled in, judging." Regarding its use in this verse, Vine says, "discriminating and passing judgment on thoughts and feelings." Like a sharp sword, the word of God pierces to our innermost nature and passes judgment on our thoughts and intents. (From Hebrews, by Johnny Stringer, p. 14-15) 7. What does verse 13 show regarding "giving account"? Nothing is kept secret from God and we will answer to Him for all that we think, say, and do. 1 Cor. 4:5; Matt. 12:36-37; 2 Cor. 5:10; Rev. 20:12 Extra Notes: 4:12 - The "for" connects verse 12 with the preceding verses. God's word, like a sharp two-edged sword, discerns, or judges, our innermost intentions. If there is unbelief in our hearts, the word will verify it. Thus, we should be diligent in our efforts to obtain the rest and to avoid falling like the Israelites. 4:13 - This verse moves from the word to the author of the word. Not only is His word a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart, but He Himself knows everything and we will give account to Him. Thus, let us be diligent in every aspect of our lives so that we will not fail to enter His eternal rest. Chart #17 - Heb. 4:11-13 Let us therefore be diligent (From spoudazo "be zealous, eager, make every effort") To enter that rest (The eternal one that awaits the faithful) Lest anyone fall after the same example of disobedience (From apeitheia "unpersuadable, obstinate, rebellious") Because: 1. All disobedience (unbelief) will be made apparent by the living, powerful, piercing, discerning word of God. 2. Everything is bare and uncovered before the Infinite One to whom we will give account. RESEARCH 1. From 4:2, what "gospel" was preached to Israel? See under No. 1 above. 2. How does his quote in verse 7 show that Joshua did not lead the Jews into the "rest" to which he was referring. David spoke of another rest. Thus, the promise of rest was not already fulfilled so as to no longer be available. 3. Why is it wrong for one to speak of the Lord's day as the "Christian Sabbath"? 1. The term "Christian Sabbath" is not found in the New Testament. 1 Pet. 4:11 2. The "first day of the week" has altogether different significance to the Christian than the "Sabbath" had to the Jews. 3. The "Sabbath" for the Christian is the rest which is to be revealed in the next life. Chart #18 - "The Lord's day" The following suggest that the first day of the week (Sunday) is the Lord's day. 1. Jesus was raised on the first day of the week (Mark 16:1-9). 2. Jesus met with His disciples several times on the first day (John 20:1,19,26). 3. Pentecost came on the first day of the week (Lev. 23:15-16); hence, all of the events of Acts 2 took place on that day--first gospel sermon, first converts, beginning of the church, etc. 4. The church assembled on the first day to partake of the Lord's Supper (Acts 20:7). 5. Christians were commanded to give on the first day (1 Cor. 16:2). LESSON SIX: Hebrews 4:14-5:11 - Our great High Priest 1. Why is Christ able to sympathize with our weaknesses? He was tempted in all points as we are, yet without sin. Heb. 2:18 Extra Notes: 1. Beginning with verse 14, the Hebrew writer returns to the theme he introduced in 2:17-18. 2. Chart # 19 - JESUS CHRIST a. A Great High Priest b. Passed Through Heavens c. The Son Of God d. Sympathizes e. Tempted, But Without Sin 2. In 4:14-16, what exhortations ("let us") does he give, since we have a great High Priest? a. "Let us hold fast our confession" b. "Let us therefore come boldly to the throne of grace" Extra Notes: 1. To the Christian, prayer becomes as natural as breathing. a. Since we have a sympathetic high priest who intercedes for us in heaven, we should not hesitate to confidently approach God's throne so that we can obtain mercy and help. 2. There is no priesthood on earth that has the right to forbid each Christian to go directly to God through Christ, or to assume the authority to administer graces and obtain mercy for others. a. All Christians are of that royal priesthood of God, and have but one great High Priest, Jesus Christ. 3. From 5:1-10, list the things which show Christ is qualified as our High Priest. Chart #20 - CHRIST - THE QUALIFIED HIGH PRIEST (Heb. 5:1-10) THE WORK OF THE HIGH PRIEST: "Appointed from men in things pertaining to God, that he may offer both gifts and sacrifices for sins." THE QUALIFICATIONS 1. To Be Human (5:1-3) 2. To Be Called By God (5:4) JESUS IS QUALIFIED 1. Called By God (5:5-6) 2. Human (5:7-10) a. In suffering (5:7) b. In obedience (5:8) c. Now exalted (5:9-10) Extra Notes: 1. 5:1-3 - "Since he himself is also beset by weakness." a. The Levitical High Priests were human and therefore able to understand the sinners' weakness and sympathize with them. b. At the same time, this was an imperfection of the Levitical High Priests. In some cases the High Priests were worse sinners than the common people. 2. 5:4-6 - These verses show that Jesus was divinely called. a. When Korah, Dathan, and Abiram tried to usurp the authority of Moses and Aaron, they were swallowed up by the earth. Num 16 and 17. b. The young Mormon "Elders" sometimes use the expression "no man takes this honor to himself" to prove that one cannot baptize another without authority to do so. i. Of course, according to them, the "authority" to rightly baptize someone comes only through the Mormon church. ii. One can easily see how they have taken the expression "no man takes this honor to himself" out of context. c. 5:5 - Psalm 2 joins the position of the Son to that of a King. d. 5:6 - Psalm 110 relates the position of Priest and King. i. At the reception, when my older brother was ordained a Catholic priest, they had in large letters on a large cake, "Thou Art A Priest Forever." I said to my wife in jest, "They left off the rest of the verse: 'according to order of Melchizedek.'" ii. The Hebrew writer will later, in the seventh chapter, emphasize the word "forever." To have an endless priesthood is a particular of the priesthood of Christ. 4. To what event is the "vehement cries and tears" probably referring? The agony in Gethsemane. Extra Notes: 1. 5:7 - "With vehement cries and tears" - This shows the intensity of His agony. a. "Was heard because of His godly fear" - It was on account of this great respect for the Father that He was heard. 2. 5:8 - The Sonship did not excuse Him from suffering or obedience. a. He learned by practical experience what it means to obey. 5. Which verse in this section clearly shows that "obedience" is necessary? Verse 9 Extra Notes: 1. 5:9 - With such plain passages in the New Testament, how can people teach that we are saved by "faith alone" or "grace alone"? 2. 5:10 - As we will see from chapter seven, Melchizedek had a double office (both King and Priest) and had no successor. So it is with Christ. 6. From 5:11, what does the expression "dull of hearing" mean? The word "dull" means literally, "lazy, slothful, sluggish." Extra Notes: 1. Dull or lazy hearers makes teaching difficult. 2. The same word "dull" was used by Isaiah, Jesus, and Paul to emphasize the lazy hearts of the people. Matt. 13:14-15; Acts 28:25-27 a. They did not have "good and honest hearts." Luke 8:15 b. Their dull hearts prevented them from understanding God's will, turning from sin, and being healed by God. RESEARCH 1. Make a list of all the "let us" passages in the book of Hebrews. Chart #1 - "LET US" 4:1 - let us fear 4:11 - lest us...enter that rest 4:14 - let us hold fast our confession 4:16 - let us come boldly to the throne of grace 6:1 - let us go on to perfection 10:22 - let us draw near with a true heart 10:23 - let us hold fast our confession 10:24 - let us consider one another 12:1a - let us lay aside every weight 12:1b - let us run with endurance the race 13:13 - let us go forth to Him, outside the camp 13:15 - let us continually offer the sacrifice 2. The expression "called of God" in 5:4 is sometimes used to prove that a preacher must have a supernatural calling in order to be qualified to preach. How would you answer this? 1. Again, like the Mormon "elders," the phrase is jerked out of context. 2. Of course, all teachers of the gospel should seek to be well qualified in accord with the teaching of the New Testament. The books of 1 and 2 Timothy and Titus greatly help. a. When one meets the requirements in the New Testament, in that sense, he would be a "God called" preacher. b. However, to have some type of special divine call (a dream, vision, strange happening, etc.) comes out of denominationalism and not from the Scriptures. c. There is an old joke about a denominational preacher who said he was a "God called preacher" because he had seen a vision in the sky which had the big letters "G" "P" and "C." He said that those letters meant that he was to "Go, Preach, Christ." His friend, who was a Christian, said that the letters didn't mean to "Go Preach Christ" at all, but meant "Go Pick Cotton." LESSON SEVEN: Hebrews 5:12-6:8 - Let us go on to perfection 1. How does the writer describe the spiritual immaturity of the brethren? The writer now digresses from the subject of Christ's priesthood, showing that it was difficult to explain this matter since they were dull of hearing; that is, they were sluggish and not quick or sharp in understanding. Chart #21 - SPIRITUALLY IMMATURE THE CONDEMNATION Dull of hearing You ought to be teachers You need someone to teach you again the first principles You have come to need milk Is unskilled Is a babe THE EXHORTATION Solid food belongs to those who are of full age Have their senses exercised Therefore, leaving...the elementary Let us: Go on to perfection Not laying again the foundation This we will do if God gives us opportunity 2. What causes one to be able to discern both good and evil? 1. Exercising their senses with reference to the word of righteousness. Extra Notes: 5:12 1. It is sad, indeed, when people who over time have not grown and have forgotten much of what they have learned. 2. "Solid food" - As the writer proceeds, he will reveal deeper principles regarding Christ. 5:13 1. Let us rise above simple, basic principles (milk) to the deeper, weightier matters (solid food) of the word of God. 2. Those who do not have their perceptions trained in the word of God fall prey to error when issues arise. 5:14 1. He shows us how to become mature, strong Christians. 2. By "reason of use" (practice), we develop the ability to discern both good and evil. Chart #22 - Discerning Both Good And Evil (Heb. 5:12-14) Work of the Flesh (Gal. 5:19-21) Adultery, Fornication, Uncleanness, Lasciviousness, Idolatry, Witchcraft, Hatred, Variance, Emulations, Wrath, Strife, Seditions, Heresies, Envyings, Murders, Drunkenness, Revelings, Such Like Fruit of the Spirit (Gal. 5:22-23) Love, Joy, Peace, Longsuffering, Gentleness, Goodness, Faith, Meekness, Temperance To which group do these belong? Profanity, Gossiping, Dirty, Jokes, Gambling, Drinking, Dancing, Mixed, Bathing, Immodesty, Smoking 3. What exhortation ("let us") does he give regarding basic principles? "Let us go on to maturity." Chart # 23 - The Foundation - Elementary Principles (Heb. 6:1-2) Repentance from dead works Faith toward God The doctrine of baptisms Laying on of hands Resurrection of the dead Eternal judgment Extra Notes: 6:1-2 - He gives a list of some of the elementary principles or foundation of Christ. As the builder must leave the foundation and build upon it, so must the Christian. 1. Repentance from dead works - This is one of the most fundamental principles of Christianity. 2. Faith toward God - This involves not only believing that God is, but having the kind of faith that pleases Him. 3. The doctrine of baptisms - Notice that the plural is used. There are a number of baptisms mentioned in the New Testament. Knowing the truth regarding them is important. 4. Laying on of hands - Only by the laying on of the apostles' hands were New Testament prophets made. Acts 8:14-19 5. Resurrection of the dead - Again, this is a basic fundamental of Christianity. 6. Eternal judgment - Someday, all men will stand before Christ to be judged. A full realization of this fact should move people to obey the gospel and remain faithful. 6:3 - There are two possibilities regarding the interpretation of this verse. 1. We will lay the foundation again - if God permits. 2. We will go on to perfection - if God gives us opportunity to do so. a. Number one seems to be the proper thought; that is, if God permitted or gave him opportunity, he would lay again the foundation of basic principles, but presently he will move forward in delivering the solid food. 4. Under what conditions is it impossible to renew one to repentance? Chart # 24 - THE DANGER OF APOSTASY (Heb. 6:4-6) 1. THE PAST STATE (6:4-5) a. "Those who were once enlightened," b. "And have tasted of the heavenly gift," c. "And have become partakers of the Holy Spirit," d. "And have tasted of the good word of God," e. "And (have tasted) the powers of the age to come," 2. THE PRESENT STATE (vs. 6a) a. "If they fall away," 3. THE FUTURE STATE (vs. 4,6) a. "It is impossible...to renew them again to repentance" 4. THE REASON (vs. 6b) a. "They crucify again for themselves the Son of God" b. "And put Him to an open shame." Concl. It is impossible to bring to repentance those saints who have personally experienced salvation in Christ and then by their actions continually re-crucify Him and put Him to an open shame. Extra Notes: 6:4-5 1. "Tasted" - "to taste; by implication 'to eat'; figurative 'to experience'" (Strong) a. It means that one has personally experienced those things. 2. "The powers of the age to come" - This refers to the powers that move us (affect us) in our lives. a. The powers which presently change our lives are the same ones which will make the changes (e.g., the transformation of our bodies - Phil. 3:20-21) in the age to come. 6:6 1. By their apostasy they judge Him as a worthless imposter worthy of the death He received. 2. It is impossible to bring to repentance those who continually crucify Christ and put Him to an open shame. 5. What happens to that which bears thorns and briers? Verses 7 and 8 are given to illustrate what he said in verses 4-6. Extra Notes: 1. He draws an illustration from husbandry to show what is normally done with good herbs and briers. 2. The fruitful Christian is like the ground that produces vegetables, but the unfaithful Christian is like the ground that produces thorns and briers. 3. The fruitful Christian receives blessings from God; the unfaithful one will receive severe punishment from God. RESEARCH 1. As one continues through the book of Hebrews, at which verse does the writer again address Christ's priesthood? He resumes his revelation regarding Christ's priesthood in 6:20. 2. List some suggestions which will help qualify us (or better qualify us) as teachers. Let all study the word of God diligently. Provide opportunities so that each can gain practical experience. Encourage one another. 3. How would you answer the one who seeks to prove 6:4-6 to be false by saying that anyone can be led to repentance? 1. The Hebrew writer is not referring to the normal Christian who through weakness commits sin. Often these can be easily lead to Repentance. 2. The Hebrew writer is referring to those who, under certain conditions, cannot be lead to repentance. a. If, and when, they change; e.g. stop crucifying Christ, putting Him to an open shame, etc., they can be reached. LESSON EIGHT: Hebrews 6:9-20 - The faithfulness of the promises of God 1. Of what was the writer convinced concerning the brethren? "Better things concerning you" - He was confident they would produce better than, as in his analogy, the ground which produces thorns and briers. Extra Notes: 6:9 1. "Things which accompany salvation" - The fruitful things which follow in verses 10-12. a. He was confident they had produced fruitful things and would continue to do so. 2. "Though we speak in this manner." - Though he had spoken in rough terms ("it is rejected and near to being cursed, whose end is to be burned"), he did not want them to determine that he thought they were incapable of the better things. 2. From 6:10-12, list the works (the better things which accompany salvation) the writer mentions? Chart #25 - Things Which Accompany Salvation (Heb. 6:9-12) Work and labor of love - ministering to the saints. To the end of life showing the same diligence in all things that pertain to the full assurance of hope. Imitating those who through faith and perseverance inherit the promises. Extra Notes: 6:10 1. "For" - This shows they were laboring in the things which accompany salvation. 2. Though, over time, we may forget many of the good things we have done, God remembers. 6:11 1. "Each one of you" - Each and every one is responsible. 2. "The same diligence" - They were diligent, and he was encouraging them to continue to be. 3. "To the full assurance of hope until the end" - Hope so increased and intensified as to leave no doubt that we will eventually attain. a. Like faith, hope can grow stronger. 6:12 1. "Sluggish" - "slothful" (KJV). This is the same word which is translated "dull" in 5:11. 2. "Imitate those who through faith and patience inherit the promises." a. There are many revealed, both in the Old and New Testaments, who were faithful. b. As he continues, he uses the example of Abraham who patiently endured. 3. What is the main point the writer is making in 6:13-20? The faithfulness of the promises of God Chart # 26 - HOPE - A Sure And Steadfast Anchor Of The Soul (Heb. 6:19-20) Our hope is anchored in God's promise and oath. As an anchored ship rides out the rage of the tempest, so hope secures the soul. The hope anchor is not cast downward, but upward into heaven where it finds its grounding. 4. In order to give assurance to man, what did God do which was in accord with man's way of thinking? He confirmed His promise with an oath (6:13-17) Extra Notes: 6:13-14 - "By Myself have I sworn..." (Gen. 22:16) Thus, it was an oath that rests on the very being of God, on His own name and character. 6:15 1. As Abraham patiently waited for God's promises to be fulfilled, we wait for the blessings of eternal life. Rom. 4:20-21 2. After patiently waiting, Abraham saw the fulfilment of the promise that his descendants would be multiplied. a. Abraham was about 100 years old when Isaac was born. (Rom. 4:19) i. After Sarah died, he married Keturah by whom he had many children. (Gen. 25:1-6) ii. Ishmael, his son by Hagar, had many children. (Gen. 25:12- 15) b. Abraham lived to be 175 years old (Gen. 25:7) i. Issac was 60 years old when Jacob and Esau were born. (Gen 25:26) ii. Thus, Jacob and Esau were already 15 years old when Abraham died. c. Thus, Abraham was able to witness the fulfillment of God's promise before he died. 6:16 1. Their oaths settled the truthfulness of a statement or promise. 2. Until the Christian dispensation, there was no command against taking oaths. Matt. 5:33-37; James 5:12-13 a. In both Matt. and James the word "swear" is the same one used in Heb. 6:13,16. b. Some people have argued that since God can swear, they can swear. No, God Himself can do many things which we cannot do. 5. What are the two immutable (unchangeable) things to which he made reference in verse 18? The promise and the oath which confirmed His promise. Extra Notes: 6:17 1. "Thus God, determining to show more abundantly to the heirs of promise" - This refers to all believers in Christ; thus, it refers to us. 2. "Confirmed it by an oath" - He added His oath to the promise. 6:18 1. In both of the immutable things (the promise and the oath) it is impossible for God to lie. Titus 1:2 a. Not like man, it is impossible for God to break His promise. 2. "We might have strong consolation" - We have strong solace, comfort, encouragement. 6. What is the sure and steadfast anchor of the soul? Hope based on the immutable promise and oath of God. Extra Notes: 6:19 1. "As an anchor of the soul" - "Anchor" is another of the nautical or maritime concepts used in the Scriptures. a. As an anchored ship rides out the rage of the tempest, so hope secures the soul. b. The hope anchor is not cast downward, but upward into heaven where it finds its grounding. 7. Into what has Jesus, the forerunner, entered for us? The Presence behind the veil. "Behind the veil" in the Old Testament tabernacle and temple represented the dwelling of God. Thus, the Hebrew writer refers to where God the Father is, in heaven itself. RESEARCH 1. The term "fled for refuge" is probably an allusion to what? a. God set up cities of refuge in the Old Testament age so that if anyone accidentally killed another person, he could flee to those cities for safety (Ex. 21:13; Num. 35:6-29; Deut. 19:1-10; Joshua 20:1-9). b. One was not safe from the avenger of blood until he was within the place of safety, and he had to make haste lest the pursuer overtake and slay him. c. Just as a person who had accidently killed his neighbor was assured of safety if he gained entrance into a city of refuge, the one who is in Christ has refuge from sin and condemnation. d. Those of us who have obeyed Christ, and are living faithfully in Him, are the ones, "who have fled for refuge to lay hold on the hope set before us." 2. List other passages which show the importance of "hope." God has begotten us again to a living hope. 1 Pet. 1:3-5 Hope creates endurance. Rom. 8:24-25 Hope causes rejoicing. Rom. 5:1-5 Hope causes us to purify ourselves. 1 John 3:1-3 Let us rest our hope fully on the grace that is to be brought to us. 1 Pet. 1:13 "How does hope serve as an anchor? If you were promised a million dollars to be given one week later, how would you feel? Excited? Joyful? But what if the promise was based on certain conditions? You must walk everywhere you go for a week! Would you be willing to do so? Could you resist the temptation to ride a bus, taxi, etc.? Even though you became weary and tired, wouldn't you be willing to continue walking, knowing that at the end you would inherit a million dollars? If it rained, or was unbearably cold or hot, wouldn't you persevere? All through the week, would you complain about the reward or the difficulty in obtaining it? Or, would you find yourself buoyed in spirit by the anticipation of the money? Would you not talk about it, plan for it, and with joy labor for it?" (From Hebrews, by Robert Harkrider, p. 51-52) LESSON NINE: Hebrews 7:1-19 - A priest forever after the order of Melchizedek Much mystery surrounds Melchizedek. We learn more about him from the book of Hebrews than from what is revealed in the Old Testament. He is only mentioned in Gen. 14:18-20 and Psalm 110:4. 1. From 7:1-10, list the things which show the greatness of Melchizedek. Chart #27 - A Superior Priesthood - "Thou art a priest forever according to the order of Melchizedek." LEVITES Priests - 7:11-14, 20-28 Based On Genealogy 7:13,16; Ezra 2:61-62 Ceased At Death - 7:23 Lesser Than Abraham - 7:9-10 Without An Oath - 7:21 Sinners - 7:27-28 MELCHIZELDEK Priest & King - 7:1-2 Not Based On Genealogy - 7:3a Continually - 7:3b Greater Than Abraham - 7:4-10 CHRIST Priest & King - Zech 6:12-13 Not Based on Genealogy - 7:14-16 Forever - 7:17, 24 Greater Than Abraham - John 8:56-58 With An Oath - 7:21 Sinless - 7:26-28 Extra Notes: 7:1-3 1. The name Melchizedek is composed of two Hebrew words: "melch" (king) and "izedek" (righteousness). After showing the interpretation of his name, the writer proceeds to show what else he was: "king of Salem," which is, "king of Peace." Melchizedek incorporated both these concepts in his name and office, and in this foreshadowed the Lord who is our Righteousness and Peace. 2. Nothing is recorded as to the beginning or end of Melchizedek's life; thus, he typically resembled the Son of God, whose existence is from everlasting to everlasting, who had no one that was before Him, and will have no one come after Him, in His priesthood. 7:4-10 Chart #28 - Superiority Of Melchizedek's Priesthood To The Levitical Priesthood 1. Abraham paid tithes to Melchizedek - Heb. 7:4-6; Gen. 14:18-20. a. The O.T. priests received tithes from their brethren because of the commandment in the Law. This was not true of Melchizedek. 2. Melchizedek blessed Abraham - Heb. 7:6-7; Gen. 14:18-20. a. The lesser is blessed by the greater; thus, Melchizedek was greater than Abraham. 3. The O.T. priests died; but, so far as the record is concerned, Melchizedek lives - Heb. 7:8. 4. In a sense, the O.T. priests paid tithes to Melchizedek. Heb. 7:9 2. What made a necessity for the change of the law? Verse 12 - Since the priesthood has been changed, the law must also be changed. If the foundation is removed, that which rests upon it is also removed. 3. Why couldn't Christ have been a priest under the Levitical priesthood? He was not from the tribe of Levi. When King Uzziah, who was of the tribe of Judah, tried to burn incense in the temple, he was smitten with leprosy. 2 Chron. 26:16-20 4. What quote does he give from the Old Testament to show that Christ was not made a priest after the law of a fleshly commandment? Verse 17 - From Psalm 110:4 Extra Notes: 7:15-17 1. Another priest has arisen after the likeness of Melchizedek in fulfillment of Psalm 110:4. 2. This priest did not come according to the law of fleshly commandment (according to physical qualifications and descent), but according to the power of an endless life ("according to the power of an indestructible life" NASV). a. He is priest by His own inherent power and eternal existence. 5. What do verses 18 and 19 teach us regarding the Law of Moses? It was annulled because of its weakness and unprofitableness. It made nothing perfect (complete). Extra Notes: 1. Paul said that the Law was weak through the flesh. Rom. 8:3-4 a. The Law was made up of a multitude of carnal and fleshly things which were weak in power. b. As a rule, fleshly things are of no value against the indulgence of the flesh. Col. 2:23 2. The "better hope" is an unusual description of the New Covenant. a. The "better hope" provides full and final removal of sin. b. The "better hope" provides a new way of access to God the Father. 3. Our advantages under the New Covenant far exceed those under the Old Covenant. RESEARCH 1. In what sense was Melchizedek "without father" and "without mother"? It is not teaching that he was not human, but so far as the record goes, his priesthood is not recorded as to origin or end. 2. How do verses 13 and 14 of chapter 7 show that the silence of the Scriptures forbids a thing? Since Moses spoke nothing concerning anyone from the tribe of Judah being a priest, Jesus could not have been a priest under the Levitical system. Application: 1. Since the New Testament Scriptures spoke nothing concerning other authorities in religion today, there re no other authorities. 2. Since the N. T. Scriptures spoke nothing concerning baptizing infants, it is wrong to do so today. 3. Since the N. T. Scriptures spoke nothing concerning mechanical instruments of music in worship, it is wrong to use them. 4. Since the N. T. Scriptures spoke nothing about a congregation withdrawing from it treasury to make a donation to an institution of any kind (Orphan's home, Widow's home, Hospital, Bible College, etc.), it cannot be done. 5. Since the N.T. Scriptures spoke nothing regarding a church, from its treasury, providing recreation and entertainment of any sort for anyone, it can't be done. 6. Since the N.T. Scriptures spoke nothing concerning a congregation sending to another church (the sponsoring church arrangement) or to a Missionary Socienty, it can't be done. 7. Since the N.T. Scriptures spoke nothing regarding divorce and remarriage for other reasons than fornication, there are no other reasons for divorce and remarriage. 3. In the original Greek, there are two words used for the word "another" ("heteros" - "another of a different sort" and "allos" - "another of the same sort"). Which of these two words is used in 7:15? It the is the word "allos" - "another of the same sort." LESSON TEN: Hebrews 7:20-8:5 - What Christ's priesthood means to Christians 1. From 7:14-28, list the verses which indicate that Jesus continues as priest forever. Chart #29 - Jesus Continues As Priest Forever - Heb. 7:14-28 Verse 16 - "According to the power of an endless life." Verse 17,21 - "You are a priest forever." Verse 24 - "Because He continues forever, He has an unchangeable priesthood." Verse 25 - "Since He ever lives to make intercession for them." Verse 28 - "Appoints the Son who has been perfected forever." 2. From 7:18-28, make a brief list of the blessings brought to Christians. Chart #30 - What Christ's Priesthood Means To Christians - Heb. 7:18-28 1. A Better Hope - Vs. 18-19 a. The Law was weak, Heb. 10:1-4 b. We draw nigh through the better hope, Heb. 6:19 2. Surety of a Better Covenant - Vs. 20-22 a. Priest by God's oath, Heb. 7:20-21 b. Built upon Better promises, Heb. 8:6; 9:15 3. Unchangeable Priesthood - Vs. 23-24 a. Levites changed continually, Num. 4:35 b. Christ continues forever, Heb. 9:24-28 4. Saves to the Uttermost - Vs. 25-26 a. In quantity, Mark 16:15-16 b. In quality, John 6:37-40; Heb. 2:9 5. A Sacrifice Once for All - Vs. 27-28 a. Sinless offering, Heb. 4:15; 2 Cor. 5:21 b. Perfected forever, Heb. 5:8-10 3. From 7:20-28, list the things which show the superiority of Christ's priesthood. Chart #31 - Superiority of Christ's priesthood - Heb. 7:20-28 Made With An Oath - Heb. 7:20-21 He has Become a Surety of a Better Covenant - Heb. 7:22 Not Subject to Death - Heb. 7:23-25 Fitting in Every Way - Heb. 7:26 Sinless - Heb. 7:26-27 The Son who has been Perfected Forever - Heb. 7:28 Extra Notes: 7:24 - His priesthood will not be annulled; it will not pass to another order of priests. 4. Which verse lists five descriptions of our High Priest? 7:26 - He is our strength and hope. Extra Notes: 7:25-26 - Let us be thankful that we have a great High Priest who overwhelmingly suits our helpless condition. 7:27 1. Those sacrifices never achieved their aim. Heb. 10:11 2. "Once for all" - The King James Verse translates this only as "once"; however, the term means "one time for all time." 5. What did the "word of the oath" appoint? The Son who has been perfected forever. 6. Jesus is said to be the "Minister" of what? "Of the sanctuary and true tabernacle which the Lord erected, and not man." Thus, it is a spiritual tabernacle built by God Himself. Chart #32 - "A More Excellent Ministry" - Heb. 8:1-6 HEAVENLY MINISTRY "Seated...in the heavens" (8:1) "A Minister...of the true tabernacle which the Lord erected" (8:2) "This One also has something to offer" (8:3b) "If He were on earth He would not be a priest" (8:4a) EARTHLY MINISTRY They were priests on earth who served in a tabernacle erected by man. The priests offering gifts and sacrifices serve unto the copy and shadow of heavenly things. God ordered Moses to build according to the pattern; otherwise, it would not have foreshadowed the more excellent ministry. Extra Notes: 8:2 1. The "true tabernacle" probably simply refers to the church; however, in other verses the tabernacle which Jesus entered is heaven itself. Heb. 9:11-12, 24-25 RESEARCH 1. What Old Testament prophecy states that Christ would be king when He was priest? Zech. 6:12-13 Chart #33 - The Supreme Power & Authority He now Occupies "Seated at the right hand of the Majesty in the heavens." Heb. 1:3,13; 8:1; 10:12; 12:2 - Mentioned five times in Hebrews. Acts 2:30-32 - He was raised to sit on David's throne. 1 Pet. 3:22 - Angels, authorities, and powers were made subject to Him. Eph. 1:20-21 - Given to Him when He was raised. Mark 16:19 - He sat down when He was received up into heaven. Heb. 10:11-13 - He will remain there until the end. 2. Define the expression in 7:25, "to the uttermost." 1. "Completely or forever" (Footnote in NKJV) Both of these thoughts fit the context. 2. "Complete, perfect, used with eis ('unto the'); is translated "to the uttermost" in Heb. 7:25, where the meaning may be 'finally'..." (Vine) 3. "Full-ended, i.e. entire (as noun, completion)" (Strong) 3. Is one justified in using 8:5 to teach that we should build the church according to the pattern? Only in the sense that if Moses had to build according to the pattern, so do we. 8:4-5 - These verses show that Moses had to build according to the pattern; otherwise, the priests and the gifts they offered could not have correctly foreshadowed Christ and His offering. LESSON ELEVEN: Hebrews 8:6-13 - The better covenant established upon better promises 1. From 8:6-13, list the things which make our new covenant a better one. Chart #34 - What Makes the New Covenant Better? (Heb. 8:7-13) It replaces a covenant that had fault (vs. 7-8) It is not according to the first covenant (vs. 9) Laws inscribed on hearts (inner response) (vs. 10a) All of us adherents are the people of God (vs. 10b) All of us adherents know God (vs. 11) It provides complete forgiveness (vs. 12) Extra Notes: 8:6 - See Heb. 9:15 2. List the things from this section which further show that we are not under the Law of Moses today. Chart #36 - Not Under the Law of Moses He is the Mediator of a better covenant. (Vs. 6) The first was with fault; thus, a second was sought. (Vs. 7) Jeremiah prophesied of a new covenant. (Vs. 8-13) He has made the first obsolete. (Vs. 13a) The old is ready to vanish away. (Vs. 13b) 3. What would have prevented a place being sought for a second covenant? If the first covenant had been faultless. Extra Notes: 8:7 - The major reason the first Law was with fault is that it could not give life. Gal. 3:21 8:8 1. Notice that He found fault with "them." Also, "...Because they did not continue in My covenant, and I disregarded them." (Vs. 9) a. The first covenant was of such nature that the blessings depended on their ability to keep the Law. b. Thus, because of the weakness of man, God promised a "new" covenant. 2. He makes a point on the word "new" in verse 13. See also Heb. 12:24 a. This "new" covenant is an "everlasting" one. Heb. 13:20 3. The "house of Israel" in this context, as we will see, is spiritual Israel. See Vs. 10. 8:9 - "When I took them by the hand" - We see the imagery of a caring Father. Also, We see God's goodness in giving the new covenant. 4. Would the new covenant be united with, or somewhat similar to, the old covenant? 1. No. - A "new" covenant, "not according" to the Mosical one. a. When one buys a "new" car, he does not receive a reworking of his old one. No, he purchases something altogether new (different). 2. Also, bear in mind that the Old Testament prophesied that a new covenant would come. a. Thus, when people accuse us of not following the O.T., we can answer, "Actually, you are not following the O.T. because the O.T. brings people under the New Testament." 5. What great blessings regarding forgiveness of sins can be obtained under the new covenant? "Their sins and their lawless deeds I will remember no more." Extra Notes: 1. Christians can partake of this basis continually. 1 John 1:9 2. The people's sins under the old covenant were remembered year after year. Heb. 10:1-4 3. A famous psychiatrist once said (I have lost the exact location of the quote), "The most difficult problem I face in my work is getting people to forgive themselves." a. Those of us who are Christians can forever forget the sins of the past. RESEARCH 1. Make a list of all the "better" things in the book of Hebrews. Chart #37 - Better Things In Hebrews 1:4 - Christ is Better than the Angels 7:19 - A Better Hope 7:22 - A Better Covenant 8:6 - A Better Covenant 9:23 - Better Sacrifices 10:34 - A Better Possession 11:16 - A Better Country 11:35 - A Better Resurrection 11:40 - A Better Provision 12:24 - A Better Blood Better Things Expected of the Hebrews - 6:9 This was also seen in our Chart #1a - Brief outline on Hebrews. 2. Explain the expressions, "None of them shall teach his neighbor, and none his brother saying, 'Know the Lord.'" 1. The covenant at Sinai was entered by a nation which included many who did not know God personally. They had to be taught to know God later. 2. However, the new covenant can only be entered by those who have the knowledge of God and His redemption in Christ. John 6:44-45 3. Explain how the "I will put My laws in their minds and write them on their hearts" was different from the situation under the first covenant. 1. To many under the Old Law, their covenant was nothing more than a bunch of laws inscribed in stone. a. The ten commandments were called "the covenant." Ex. 34:28; Deut. 4:13 b. To them, their covenant was nothing more than an agreement to keep certain laws. Ex. 19:8; 24:3,7; Deut. 26:17 2. However, under the new covenant, the law is inscribed in our hearts and minds. a. The new covenant to us is much more than a set of abstract laws. b. Christians, not like those under the Old Law, have a knowledge of the will of God. In other words, even though they may not have a copy of the Scriptures before them, they know many of the basics of the will of God. 2 Cor. 3:3 4. List other passages which indicate that the Old Testament went out slowly rather than abruptly. Acts 21:18-26 1. James and the elders encouraged Paul to do certain things of the Law to show "that you yourself also walk orderly and keep the law" (vs. 24). 2. Paul acted in accord with the suggestion (or judgment) given by James and the elders (vs. 26). LESSON TWELVE: Hebrews 9:1-15 - How much more shall the blood of Christ...? 1. What kind of sanctuary did the first covenant have? 9:1 - An "earthly" sanctuary Extra Notes: 1. The word "sanctuary" means: a. "A sacred or holy place or thing." (Strong) b. "1. Hagion, the neuter of the adjective hagios, holy, is used of those structures which are set apart to God, (a) of the Tabernacle in the wilderness, Heb. 9:1, R.V., "its sanctuary, a sanctuary of this world" (A.V., "a worldly sanctuary"); in ver. 2 the outer part is called "the Holy place," R.V. (A.V., "the sanctuary"); here the neuter plural hagia is used, as in verse 3." (Vine) 2. The word "tabernacle" is defined as: a. "Lit. a tent or cloth hut; a habitation, tabernacle." (Strong) b. "1. Skene, a tent, booth, tabernacle, is used of (a) tents as dwellings, Matt. 17:4; Mark 9:5; Luke 9:33; Heb. 11:9, A.V., "tabernacles" (R.V., "tents"); (b) the Mosaic Tabernacle, Acts 7:44; Heb. 8:5; 9:1 (in some mss.); 9:8, 21, termed "the tent of meeting," R.V. (i.e., where the people were called to meet God), a preferable description to "the tabernacle of the congregation," as in the A.V. in the O.T.; the outer part, 9:2, 6; the inner sanctuary, 9:3; (c) the Heavenly prototype, Heb. 8:2; 9:11; Rev. 13:6; 15:5; 21:3 (of its future descent); (d) the eternal abodes of the saints, Luke 16:9, R.V., "tabernacles" (A.V., "habitations"); (e) the temple in Jerusalem, as continuing the service of the tabernacle, Heb. 13:10; (f) the house of David, i.e., metaphorically of his people, Acts 15:16; (g) the portable shrine of the god Moloch, Acts 7:43. "2. Skenos, the equivalent of No. 1, is used metaphorically of the body as the tabernacle of the soul, 2 Cor. 5:1, 4." (Vine) 2. What things were in the ark? "The golden pot that had the manna, Aaron's rod that budded, and the tablets of the covenant." (9:4) Extra Notes: "The golden altar of incense" - There is some disagreement as to where this was placed. Since it was connected with the "holiest of all" (it had a golden censer which was to be carried into the most holy place, Lev. 16:12-13), it was spoken of as being in both places. 3. Indicate whether the following items were in the Holy Place (HP) or the Most Holy Place (MHP) of the tabernacle. golden pot with manna (MHP) Aaron's rod that budded (MHP) table of showbread (HP) cherubims (MHP) golden lampstands (HP) tables of the covenant (MHP) mercy seat (MHP) ark of the covenant (MHP) Chart #38 - Tabernacle (This is a separate gif file) 4. From verses 7 and 8, what did the restrictions which prevented men from entering behind the veil indicate? 9:8 - "...That the way into the Holiest of All was not yet made manifest while the first tabernacle was still standing." Extra Notes: 9:8 - "The 'holiest of all' was the second compartment, where God was considered to be present above the mercy seat. The veil separated this compartment from the rest of the tabernacle, signifying the barrier between man and God. The fact that no one could enter behind that veil (with the one yearly exception) symbolized the fact that rituals of the Law of Moses did not break down the barrier between man and God; the means of access to God was not yet provided. Through the death of Christ, that barrier was removed, for his death made access to God possible; hence, upon his death the veil in the temple was torn to indicate that fact (Matt. 27:51; Mk. 15:38; Luke 23:45)." (From Hebrews, by Johnny Stringer, p. 37). 9:9 1. The word "symbolic" means "Parabole, a casting or placing side by side (para, beside, ballo, to throw) with a view to comparison or resemblance, a parable, is translated 'figure' in the A.V. of Heb. (R.V., 'a parable to the time now present') and 11:19, where the return of Isaac was (parabolically, in the lit. sense of the term) figurative of resurrection (R.V., 'a parable')." (Vine) 2. The service of priests in the tabernacle resembled the priestly work of Christ. a. The priestly work of Christ accomplishes what the priestly service in the tabernacle could not accomplish. 5. What point did the writer make with reference to the expression "how much more," in verse 14? If the blood of bulls and goats accomplished those things, how much more will the blood of Christ accomplish? Chart #39 - Why Follow Only The "Figure" of the True? (Heb. 9:1-15) Under the Law of Moses True Way to God not Open - 9:8 Conscience not Purged - 9:9 A Temporary Service - 9:10 Significant Differences Only the High Priest (Access Not to All) - 9:7a Enter Once a Year (Not All the Time) - 9:7b Carrying blood (Blood of Animals) - 9:7c Under The Ministry of Christ "High Priest of the better things' - 9:11a "Greater and more perfect tabernacle" - 9:11b "With His own Blood" - 9:12a "He entered the Most Holy Place" - 9:12b "How much more" - 9:14 "Promise of the eternal inheritance" - 9:15 Extra Notes: 9:11 - "Not of this creation." - This refers to the heavenly tabernacle contrasted to the "earthly" one (9:1). 9:12 1. "But with His own blood He entered the Most Holy Place" - He entered into heaven itself to appear in the presence of God for us. Heb. 9:24 a. He did not go "literally" into heaven with His blood, but "by means of death" (9:15) or by means of his blood (by means of the blood He had shed) he approached God for us. 2. "Once for all" - As in 7:27; 9:26-27, His sacrifice was "one time for all time." His one entrance into the true tabernacle with His own blood was sufficient for all time. 3. "Having obtained eternal redemption" - Our redemption is continuous and eternal in nature. His sacrifice of Himself did not accomplish a "temporary" cleansing as was under the Old Covenant. 9:13 1. "Blood of bulls and goats and the ashes of a heifer" - Num. 19:2-10; Lev. 16:11-12 2. "Sanctifies for the purifying of the flesh" - They had some benefit in staying the wrath of God against the sinner. 9:14 1. "Who through the Spirit" - Through the Holy Spirit. 2. "Offered Himself" - He voluntarily laid down His life. 3. "Purge your conscience from dead works" - His blood cleanses our conscience from the works which deserve death. When forgiveness is assured, the conscience is at rest. 4. "To serve the living God" - This, along with 1 Pet. 2:24 and other like passages, shows our responsibility in the matter. a. We respond to His gracious gift by living as He would have us. 6. From 9:15, how did the death of Jesus affect the sins of those who lived under the Old Covenant? His death brought redemption "for the...transgressions under the first covenant." Also, "the spirits of just men made perfect" (Heb. 12:23). This refers to the worthies of the Old world (Patriarchical, Mosical), as well as to us. Extra Notes: 9:15 1. Notice that He is the Mediator of the new covenant "by means of death." a. He is the Mediator of the new covenant because He offered Himself. Matt. 26:28 RESEARCH 1. To what "time" does the "present time" in 9:9 and the "times of reformation" in 9:10 refer? 1. The "present time" refers to Paul's present time (at that time in Paul's life). 2. The "time of reformation" refers to the time under the New Covenant. a. It refers to the change (reform) brought about by the completed sacrifice of Christ. 2. How does the illustration of "writing a check" illustrate how sins were forgiven under the Old Testament? 1. The "check" is not good in actuality until it clears the bank. Those who lived faithfully under the First Covenant did not have their sins forgiven in actuality until the death of Christ. Those faithful had the "check" (promise of sins forgiven), but it had not cleared the bank as of yet (the death of Christ). 2. The term "and it shall be forgiven him" or "forgiven them" is found many times under the Old covenant with reference to various things which were commanded. (Lev. 4:20,26,31,35; 5:10,13,16,18; 6:7; Num. 15:25,26,28) They were required to do those things, and the means by which they would have complete forgiveness would come later. LESSON THIRTEEN: Hebrews 9:16-28 - Christ was once offered to bear the sins of many 1. From 9:11-28, list the things which Christ's blood (death, offering, sacrifice) obtained. Chart #40 - The Blood of Jesus (Heb. 9:11-28) Obtained Eternal Redemption - Vs. 11-12 Purges the Conscience - Vs. 13-14 Mediator of the New Covenant - Vs. 15a Redeemed Those Under First Covenant - Vs. 15b Provides the Promise of Eternal Inheritance - 15c Puts the New Covenant into Force - Vs. 16-17 Dedicates His Covenant - Vs. 18-21 Purges and Remits (Implied) - Vs. 22 Purifies the Heavenly with Better Sacrifices - Vs. 23 Appears in the Presence of God for us - Vs. 24 Offered Himself Once For All - Vs. 25-28 2. When does a testament become binding? "After men are dead" - 9:16-17 Extra Notes: 1. His death puts the New Covenant into force. 2. "No power at all while the testator lives" - His Covenant (Testament) began to be proclaimed by Him before He died (as a will is made before one dies), but it was not binding until His death. 3. Once a person dies, no one has a right to altar or change the will. Gal. 3:15 Place Research Question No. 1 here: How do verses 16 and 17 answer the age-old question, "What about the thief on the cross"? The thief was not under the same law we are under; thus, he was not commanded to be baptized into Christ in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit as we are. Matt. 28:18-20; Gal. 3:26-27 3. What did Moses use to dedicate the first covenant? "He took the blood of calves and goats, with water, scarlet wool, and hyssop, and sprinkled both the book itself and all the people." - 9:19 Extra Notes: 1. The water, scarlet wool, and hyssop are not mentioned in the Exodus account of the covenant being dedicated. Ex. 24:5-8 a. However, the use of hyssop is mentioned several times in the Scriptures. b. The American Heritage dictionary defines "hyssop" as "An unidentified plant mentioned in the Bible as the source of twigs used for sprinkling in certain Hebraic purificatory rites. c. Scarlet wool was probably wrapped around the hyssop to absorb the blood and water that were sprinkled. 4. What did Moses say when he sprinkled both the book and all the people? "This is the blood of the covenant which God has commanded you." - 9:20 Extra Notes: Thus, both covenants were dedicated or ratified with blood. Matt. 26:28 5. What is the only means by which remission of sins can be obtained? "Without shedding of blood there is no remission." - 9:22 Extra Notes: 9:22 1. "Without shedding of blood there is no remission" is a statement from God. For any sin to be forgiven, it requires blood atonement. Lev. 17:11 2. Since the blood of animals could not take away sin (10:4), only the blood of Christ could provide remission. Put in Research Questions 2 and 3 here: 2. From verses 23-24, where it is used twice, define the word "copies" and list at least one other verse where this word is used. 1. Actually, there are two different Greek words here. a. The one used in verse 23 is: "Hupodeigma, an exhibit for imitation or warning (fig. specimen, adumbration):--en- (ex-) ample, pattern." (Strong) "The synonymous noun hupotuposis, an example, pattern, 1 Tim. 1:16; 2 Tim. 1:13, denotes simply a delineation or outline." (Vine) b. The one used in verse 24 is: "Antitupon, corresponding ["an titype"], i.e. a representative, counterpart:--(like) figure (whereunto). (Strong) "Tupos 1. tupos, a type, figure, pattern, is translated figures." (Vine) "Antitupos (anti, corresponding to, and No. 1), i.e., the event or person or circumstance corresponding to the type..." (Vine) i. Thus, "Antitupos" does not mean "opposite in type" but "like in type." 2. A passage that uses "Antiupos" is 1 Pet. 3:21. Just as Noah and his family were saved by water, we are saved by water baptism. Extra Notes: 9:23 1. It was necessary for the copies (outlines) of the things in the heavens to be purified with these (e.g., purified with the blood sacrifices). a. Thus, it was also necessary that the heavenly things be purified with better sacrifices than these (the blood of Christ). He uses the plural (sacrifices) to keep the parallel in tact. 9:24 1. We need to make personal application. Christ did this for me (and you). I (and you) need to visalize Christ going into heaven in the presence of God for me (and you). If this were not done for me, how could I be saved otherwise? 2. The Hebrew writer continues by showing that Christ's one sacrifice is sufficient for all time. Consider Research Question No. 3 here: 3. From verses 26-29, where it is used three times, define the word "once" and list at least one other verse where this word is used. 1. The same Greek word is used in all three verses. a. "Hapax, one (or a single) time (numerically or conclu-sively):--once." (Strong) b. "Hapax...once for all, of what is of perpetual validity, not requiring repetition..." (Vine) 2. Unlike the High Priests who entered the Most Holy Place every year with the blood of another (vs. 25), Christ "once" sacrificed Himself (vs. 26). 3. Jude 3 is an excellent example of how this word ("once for all") is used. 4. Consider this from a Catholic source: "At mass, the Victim immolated on Calvary is offered anew, by the priest repeating the same words with which Christ offered at the Last Supper...The Church, by the symbolic separation of body and blood (in the double consecration), epresents the historic sacrifice and offers it anew to the heavenly Father." (My Catholic Faith, p. 286) Extra Notes: 9:26 1. "At the end of the ages" - this shows that we are in the last age now. 1 Cor. 10:11; 1 Pet. 1:20 2. "He appeared to put away sin" - Not only does His sacrifice forgive sins, but it annuls its power. It puts away the guilt and the desire to commit sin. 6. What did the writer mention about the death of Christ which is consistent with the death of all men? As all men die "once," Christ was offered "once." "Since men have sinned from the foundation of the world, if his sacrifice were not sufficient for all sins of all time, it would have been necessary for Christ to offer himself from the foundation of the world, beginning then and repeating the sacrifice time and again through the ages. Instead, he appeared once to put away sin by his one-time offering." (From Hebrews, A Study by Johnny Stringer, p. 42). Extra Notes: 9:27 1. "After this the judgment" - The Hebrew writer does not deal with the time-lapse between one's death and the judgment. A person dies, and sometime thereafter, he will be in the great judgment which will occur at the Lord's coming. Matt. 25:31-46; 2 Tim. 4:1 2. "Death" and "judgment" are two appointments that all men will keep whether they want to or not. 9:28 1. "To bear the sins of many" - He took ours sins (the guilt and consequences) upon Himself. a. 1 Pet. 2:24 says, "who Himself bore our sins in His own body on the tree..." b. 2 Cor. 5:21 says, "For He made Him who knew no sin to be sin for us..." c. Rom. 8:3 says, "God did by sending His own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, on account of sin: He condemned sin in the flesh." 2. "To those who eagerly wait for Him" - This is a distinguishing characteristic of true believers. 3. "He will appear a second time apart from sin for salvation." - His second coming will not be as a sin offering, but to eternally save those who faithfully serve Him. a. This is the end purpose and consumation of it all - that the worthy might receive eternal salvation. RESEARCH 1. How do verses 16 and 17 answer the age-old question, "What about the thief on the cross"? See notes above under question No. 2. 2. From verses 23-24, where it is used twice, define the word "copies" and list at least one other verse where this word is used. See in notes above. 3. From verses 26-28, where it is used three times, define the word "once" and list at least one other verse where this word is used. See in notes above. 4. How does 9:27 show that reincarnation cannot be true? Man can die several times. "Reincarnation" defined as: "Rebirth in new bodies or forms of life; esp. a rebirth of a soul in a new human body; a fresh embodiment." (Webster) Thus, those who espouse "reincarnation" believe that one can die and then live again in a different body. They believe that it is possible for one to go through this process several times; e.g., dying and living again. The Bible teaches otherwise. LESSON FOURTEEN: Hebrews 10:1-18 - The animal sacrifices were insufficient This is the last lesson so far as the "doctrinal" part of the book of Hebrews is concerned. Heb. 10:19 begins the "application" part and continues through the remainder of the book. 1. Of what was the Law a shadow? "Of the good things to come." See also Heb. 8:5 where the word "shadow" is also used. Extra Notes: 1. The Law was as shadow (a rude outline) of the good things to come (the privileges and blessings under the new Covenant). 2. The word "shadow" means "a shadow caused by the interception of light...the image or outline cast by an object." (Vine) a. It is used both literally (Acts 5:15) and figurative in the New Testament, as is the case in Hebrews (Heb. 8:5; 10:1) and other passages (Col. 2:16-17). 3. The sacrifices of the Old Law could not perfect those who approached God through them. They were only the rude outline of the one sacrifice that could bring complete forgiveness. 2. From 10:1-9, list some things which suggest weaknesses regarding the Old Testament sacrifices. Chart #41 - THE PERFECT SACRIFICE ANIMAL SACRIFICES Offered Continually (10:1a,11a) Could not Perfect the Worshipers (10:1b-2a) Reminder of Sins Every Year (10:2b-3) Could not take away Sins (10:4,11b) God had no Pleasure in Them (10:5-8) Under the First Covenant (10:8-9) CHRIST'S SACRIFICE Offered Once For All (10:10,12-13) Perfected Forever (10:14) Sins Remembered No More (10:17) Remission of Sins (10:17-18) God had Pleasure in One who did His Will (10:5-8) Establishes the Second Covenant (10:9-10,15-16) Extra Notes: 10:1-3 1. "Offered continually year by year" - See also 10:11 - All sins were remembered every year. 2. "Can never...make those who approach perfect." - This shows the imperfections of the Old Law. It could not obtain pardon from nor impart sufficient power against sin. 3. "Once purged, would have had no more consciousness of sins." - If truly purged, they would no longer have a evil conscience. 10:4 - Verses 1-3 leads to this conclusion. The forgiveness under the Old Law was only in promise until the sacrifice of Christ was completed. 3. Which verse makes reference to the incarnation (John 1:1,14) of Christ? "A body You have prepared for Me" - 10:5 Extra Notes: 10:5-6 1. "When He came into the world, He said" - These verses picture Christ speaking the words of Psalm 40:6-8. 2. "Sacrifice and offering You did not desire...In burnt offerings and sacrifices for sin You had no pleasure." a. This shows that God had a different plan from the beginning. He did not take pleasure (did not find them acceptable in a full sense) in the O.T. sacrifices. b. Also, notice that the Old Law itself showed the weaknesses of the Old Law. 4. What had Christ come to do, and to what does it seem to have reference? "To do Your will, O God." - 10:7 In this context (vs. 5-9b), it implies that He came to be the more perfect sacrifice (better than burnt offerings) in accord with the will of God. The Levitical sacrifices did not fulfill the will of God. Jesus came to fulfill that will by offering His own body. Extra Notes: 1. "In the volume of the book it is written of Me" - This implies that He came to fulfil the O.T. prophecies. Place Research Question No. 1 here: 1. To which "book" is the writer referring in 10:7? Probably not just one book; e.g., the book of Psalms, but the entire Old Testament. 2. "To do Your will, O God." - Jesus came to provide an acceptable sacrifice in obedience to, and to complete and satisfy, God's will. Heb. 9:14 5. Which verse shows that God has never had two wills or covenants in effect at the same time? He took away the first (God's will regarding things under the Old Law) that He might establish the second (God's will which is now in force). Also, in the immediate context, He took away the first (God's unpleasant regard for the offerings according to the Law) that He might establish the second (fulfill and satisfy God's will with reference to an offering that brought complete forgiveness of sins). 6. According to verses 10 and 14, how have we been sanctified and perfected? "By that will...through the offering of the body of Christ once for all." - 10:10 "For by the one offering He has perfected forever..." 10:14 Extra Notes: 9:10 - "By that will" - Because of God's will (for Christ to offer Himself for sins), and because of Christ's fulfilment of that will, we have been sanctified. 9:12 - "One sacrifice for sins forever" - This is contrasted with those sacrifices which had to be repeated. 9:14 - "He has perfected forever those who are being sanctified" - In the sense of making them complete (acceptable) to God. 7. From 10:15-18, in what way had the Holy Spirit witnessed? He shows in this context that it was through the Scriptures. Extra Notes: 9:15 - He is showing that the Holy Spirit witnessed that man would be perfected under the new covenant. 9:16 - From Jer. 31:33 and also in Heb. 8:10. The nature of the new covenant is not of external form. 9:17 - From Jer. 31:34 and also in Heb. 8:12. This is his main point in this context. There is complete and perfect forgiveness as the result of Christ's sacrifice. His sacrifice perfectly and completely fulfills God's will (demands, requirements) so far as forgiveness of sin is concerned. 9:18 - When there is forgiveness (before God), no more offerings are needed. RESEARCH 1. To which "book" is the writer referring in 10:7? See under Question No. 4 above. 2. Some argue from 10:13 that Christ is waiting for His enemies to be conquered so that He can begin His reign? How would you answer? 1. The verse before (vs. 12) said: "He sat down at the right hand of God." When He sat down at God's right hand, He began His reign. See Chart #33 2. Verse 13 does not say that He is waiting "to begin His reign," but waiting "till His enemies are made His footstool." He is now reigning in the midst of His enemies (Psalm 110:2), but He hasn't yet conquered them. He will conquer His enemies when He returns (2 Thess. 1:7-9). a. He will destroy His enemies in the day of His wrath. Psalm 110:5; Rom. 2:5; 2 Pet. 3:7 3. The idea of "enemies made a footstool" seems to be taken from Joshua 10:24-26. 3. From 10:10-18, how is the Catholic teaching regarding "penitence" and "indulgences" refuted? Notice these quotes from Catholic sources: "In Confession the eternal punishment (hell) is taken away, but all of the temporal punishment due to your sins is not always taken away. "Temporal punishment" means that, even though all your sins are forgiven through the Sacrament of Penance, God still demands that you be punished for your sins, either in this life or in purgatory...One of the ways by which you can make up for your sins is gaining indulgences." (A Catechism For Adults, p. 87) "What is an indulgence? An indulgence is the taking away of all or part of the temporal punishment still due to sin. How many kinds of indulgences are there? Two kinds: plenary and partial. What is a plenary indulgence? One that takes away all the temporal punishment. Examples: saying the Rosary before the Blessed Sacrament, making the Way of the Cross, attending Forty Hours Devotion. What is a partial indulgence? One that takes away only part of the temporal punishment. Examples: using holy water, medals or statues that have been blessed, reciting the Litany of the Blessed Virgin, reading the New Testament at least fifteen minutes a day." (A Catechism For Adults, p. 90-91) LESSON FIFTEEN: Hebrews 10:19-31- Hold fast our confession lest we fall into the hands of God 1. What has the Lord consecrated for us? "A new and living way" - 10:20 Extra Notes: 1. We enter the Holiest by the new and living way which He consecrated for us. 2. Before this (the shedding of the blood of Jesus), there was no free access. 2. From 10:19-21, what two things do we now have? "Boldness to enter the Holiest by the blood of Jesus" - 10:19 "A High Priest over the house of God" - 10:21 Extra Notes: 1. Thus, the writer of Hebrews gives duel bases for his exhortation. He will continue with his three-fold exhortation. 2. It behooves us to take advantage of this privilege - enter the Holiest with boldness. 10:20 1. In the Old Testament order, the veil had to be parted before the high priest could go from the holy place into the most holy place. 2. Here the flesh of Jesus is represented as the veil. His flesh was torn when He was consecrated for us (his death on the cross). a. When He died, the literal veil was likewise torn. Matt. 27:51; Mark 15:38 10:21 - "...Having a High Priest over the house of God." - The Priesthood of Christ has been an important theme through the book. 3. Based on the blessings mentioned in verses 10:19-21, what three exhortations ("let us") does he give in the verses which follow? "Let us draw near with a true heart" - 10:22 "Let us hold fast the confession of our hope without wavering" - 10:23 "Let us consider one another in order to stir up love and good works." - 10:24 4. What are the internal and external parts of conversion as mentioned in 10:22? "Our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience" "Our bodies washed with pure water." Extra Notes: 10:22 - "Let us draw near..." 1. "With a true heart" - with a pure conscience. 2. "Full assurance" - with complete confidence. 3. "Having our hearts sprinkled..." a. As the O.T. priests sprinkled the sacrificial blood to purify, our hearts are figuratively sprinkled with the blood of Christ. b. This is the internal part of regeneration. 4. "Our bodies washed..." a. This is the external part of regeneration - water baptism. b. It is the washing of regeneration. Titus 3:5 10:23 - "Let us hold fast the confession..." - Let us continue in it by faithful, godly living. 1. "Confession of our hope" - We confess that we wish to obtain heaven. Let us hold fast to all that this confession involves. a. "Without wavering" - without faltering, without stumbling. b. "For He who promised is faithful." - He is reliable and trustworthy and the one who commits his will to Him, will never be disappointed. 1 Pet. 4:19 10:24-25 - "And let us" - He exhorts both positively and negatively. 1. Verse 24 - the positive. a. "Consider one another" - show concern, have interest in. b. "To stir up" - to stimulate, provoke, arouse. c. "Love and good works" - All of us need exhortation and encouragement; thus, let us exhort and encourage one another to do our best in living the Christian life. 2. Verse 25 - the negative. Thus, we are not to forsake any of our assemblies. 5. What did the writer encourage (command) us not to do? "Not forsaking the assembling of ourselves together" - 10:25 Place No. 1 of the Research Questions here: How would you answer those who say that 10:25 refers to the Lord's day only? Actually, there are three popular arguments from this verse: 1. Some say that the word "forsake" refers to forsaking altogether and should not be applied to when a person misses just one service. However, the word is used in 2 Tim. 4:16 and Matt. 27:46 and refers to just once. 2. Some think that the verse refers to the "assembly" - only on the Lord's day morning when the Lord's supper is taken. However, it is the word "assembling" which refers to any coming together; it is the word "episnnago" (the act of assembling), and not the word "ekklesia" the regular word for assembly. 3. Some say the word "Day" refers to the Lord's day - they needed to increase their efforts when they saw the Lord's day coming. a. However, there is no indication in the context that it must refer to the Lord's day. It could refer to any day wherein one needed exhortation. For example, if one did not attend on Wed. nights and I had a continual opportunity to exhort him, I would increase my efforts as I saw that day approaching. b. Many of the older commentators take the position that "the day" refers to the destruction of Jerusalem--that the Hebrews, by the signs that Jesus spoke of (Matt. 24; Luke 21), could see that it was approaching. c. It probably refers to the great day--the day of the Lord's coming. We know that it is nearer than it was. Rom. 13:11-12 6. From 10:26-31, list the consequences for those who sin wilfully. "There no longer remains a sacrifice for sins" - 10:26 "But a certain fearful expectation of judgment, and fiery indignation" - 10:27 Punishment worse than death - 10:28-29 Vengeance, judgment, and fearful things from God - 10:30-31 Extra Notes: 10:26 1. To "Sin Wilfully" is to knowingly and deliberately go against one's conscience. a. In this context, it includes deliberately forsaking the assembling of the saints, i.e., relatives come and one stays home. He goes golfing, fishing, shopping, sleeps in, or whatever. It does not include those times when it is no fault Of his own. 2. He loses the only sacrifice for sins. (Verse 26b) a. He didn't say there is no more forgiveness, but no more sacrifice. b. He is rejecting the sacrifice which is his only chance and hope; he is abandoning that which purchased the church and all that pertains to it. i. When he wilfully forsakes, he is setting his will against the Lord's. 10:27 1. Application can be made regarding any wilful sin; however, because of the immediate context, we make application to the forsaking the assembling of ourselves together. 2. These things remain: a. "But a certain fearful expectation of judgment..." - We all will face judgment, but it will be a fearful time for the one who commits the sin of verse 25. b. "And fiery indignation" - He incurs the wrath of God. God is indignant, his righteous anger is aroused, when one forsakes the assemblies. c. "Which shall devour the adversaries." - One places himself in the realm of the enemy of God when he forsakes, and God's fiery indignation shall destroy him. Luke 19:27 i. Man brings all these things upon himself when he wilfully forsakes. Many brethren do not understand the seriousness of forsaking. It is something that is not to be taken lightly. 10:28-29 1. What God does to those who wilfully forsake: a. Verse 28 - Some examples are: the man who gathered sticks on the Sabbath (Num. 15:32-36); the boy who blasphemed the name of the Lord and cursed (Lev. 24:11-14). b. Verse 29 - "worse punishment" - worse than capital punishment. i. "Who has trampled the Son of God underfoot..." - How? Attendance is part of the will of Christ and he shows his disrespect for Him by not attending. ii. "Counted the blood...a common thing..." - He is reducing the blood to no more than a common or ordinary thing; thus, he shows his lack of appreciation for the blood atonement. iii. "And insulted the Spirit of grace" - He shows contempt for the Holy Spirit who delivered the message of grace. 10:30-32 1. Verse 30 - At the judgment, what excuse will one give the Lord for wilfully forsaking? a. God will take vengeance on the disobedient. b. Verse 31- He falls into His hands. 7. How does this section show that God is not a God of love only? It shows that wilful sinners will be severely punished by God. RESEARCH 1. How would you answer those who say that 10:25 refers to the Lord's day only? See notes under No. 5 above. 2. What does it mean to count the blood of the covenant as a "common thing" and "insult (do despite to) the Spirit of grace? See notes above. LESSON SIXTEEN: Hebrews 10:32-11:5 - The just shall live by faith 1. From 10:32-34, list the things they had done which he asks them to recall. "You endured a great struggle with sufferings" - vs. 32 "And joyfully accepted the plundering of your goods" - vs. 33 Chart #42 - Things He Asks Them To Recall (Heb. 10:32-34) He reminds them of: "The former days after you were illuminated" (vs. 32a) "You endured a great struggle with sufferings" (vs. 32b) He elaborates on his last statement: "Partly, while you were made a spectacle both by reproaches and tribulations" (vs. 33a) "And partly, while you became companions of those who were so treated" (vs. 33b) Again, he elaborates on his last statement: "For you had compassion on me and my chains (vs. 34a) "And joyfully accepted the plundering of your goods" (vs. 34b) Extra Notes: 10:32 - "A great struggle with sufferings" - This is often the case with new converts. 10:33 1. This verse explains what type of sufferings they had endured. a. "Reproaches" - They were spoken against. b. "Tribulations" - "Anguish, burdened, persecution, tribulation, trouble." (Strong) This includes "bodily harm"; however, they had not, as of yet, suffered bloodshed. Heb. 12:4 i. In the pictures of the ancient Roman method of threshing grain, one man is always seen stirring up the sheaves while another rides over them in a crude cart equipped with rollers instead of wheels. Rough bits of iron were attached to these cylinders to help separate the husks from the grain. This simple cart was called a "tribulum" from which we get our word "tribulation." ii. When great afflictions come, we often think of ourselves as being torn to pieces under the cruel pressures of adverse circumstances. Remember, no thresher ever used his tribulum for the mere purpose of tearing up the sheaves but to disclose the precious grain. Likewise, God tries the righteous, but He never puts them under the pressure of sorrow and disappointment needlessly. c. "Companions" - They had become "partakers, sharers" with those who were likewise treated. 2. What motivated the Hebrews to accept joyfully the plundering of their goods? "Knowing that you have a better and an enduring possession for yourselves in heaven." - 10:34 Extra Notes: They knew that the earthly possessions soon perish. Prov. 23:5; Matt. 6:19 All earthly things are temporal. 2 Cor. 4:18 May the assurance of an "enduring substance" also motivate us to diligence and faithful godly living. 3. What were they exhorted to not cast away? "Do not cast away your confidence, which has great reward." 10:35 Extra Notes: 1. "Your Confidence" - Do not cast away your strong assurance. You formerly endured; do so now. 2. "Which has great reward" - 2 Cor. 4:17; Rom. 8:18 4. Why do we have need of patience? "So that after you have done the will of God, you may receive the promise." - 10:36 Extra Notes: 10:36 - The endless reward will make the waiting seem very short. 10:37 - Every generation should live as though the coming of the Lord is near. James 5:7-9; 1 Pet. 4:7 5. Of whom is it said, "My soul has no pleasure in him." Of the one who draws back. - 10:38 Extra Notes: 10:38 1. Saving faith is not a act of the moment, but the attitude of a lifetime. 2. Those who "draw back" will have a certain fearful destruction. 3. If "once saved always saved" were true, this warning would have no meaning. 10:39 1. Paul had confidence in the Hebrew Christians. 2. Let us run with endurance the race that is set before us. Heb. 12:1-2 6. How is faith described or defined in 11:1? "Now faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen." (NKJV) "Now faith is the assurance of things hoped for, the conviction of things not seen." (NASV) Chart #43 - FAITH (Heb. 11:1-3,6) 1. THE DEFINITION OF FAITH (11:1). a. It is the substance (foundation, assurance) of that which we desire and expect. b. It is conviction based on the evidence which proves that the things not seen are real. 2. THE REWARD OF FAITH (11:2). 3. THE APPLICATION OF FAITH (11:3). 4. THE NECESSITY OF FAITH (11:6). a. Believe in God's existence. b. Believe He rewards those who diligently seek Him. Extra Notes: 11:1 1. "Substance" - Literally: "stand under, foundation"; hence, faith is the ground or foundation under one's hope. 2. "Evidence" - Our faith is not built on blind trust, but on evidence which brings conviction and assurance in the heart. John 20:30-31; Rom. 10:17 11:2 1. Faith was the cause of their obedience and patience under sufferings. 7. From 11:3 and Psalm 33:6-9, what do we understand by faith? "That the worlds were framed by the word of God" - 11:3a "By the word of the LORD the heavens were made" - Psalm 33:6 "For He spoke, and it was done; He commanded, and it stood fast." - Psalm 33:9 "That the things which are seen were not made of things which are visible." - 11:3b 8. What did Abel do by faith? "Offered a more excellent sacrifice than Cain" - 11:4 Chart #44 - "BY FAITH ABEL..." (Heb. 11:4) 1. OFFERED A MORE EXCELLENT SACRIFICE. Rom. 10:17; John 20:30-31 2. OFFERED A TESTIFYING SACRIFICE (GOD TESTIFIED). Lev. 9:24; 1 Kings 18:38; Phil. 4:18 3. OFFERED A CONTINUOUSLY SPEAKING SACRIFICE. Gen. 4:3-5 a. Abel continues to tell us that offering in the right manner is necessary. It produces the favor of God. To act on presumption (without divine revelation) brings the disfavor and rejection (wrath) of God. Prov. 16:25; Matt. 15:9; Matt. 7:23 Extra Notes: Place Research Question No. 2 here: Why was Abel's sacrifice, which he offered "by faith," accepted; whereas, Cain's was not? In other words, what does it mean to do something "by faith"? 1. To do something "by faith" is to act in accord with God's revelation. 2. "Through which he obtained witness that he was righteous" - 1 John 3:12 3. "God testifying of his gifts" - God testified by speaking to Cain and Abel, and by having those things written for us (Gen. 4:1-15; Heb. 11:4; 1 John 3:11-12). 9. What testimony did Enoch have before he was translated? "That he pleased God" - 11:5 Extra Notes: 1. "Enoch was translated so that he did not see death" - Gen. 5:24 2. All the righteous who are alive when the Lord returns will also be translated into heaven. 1 Thess. 4:17 RESEARCH 1. What is the difference in the meaning of the words "believe" in 10:39 and "faith" in 11:1? There is no difference. They are the same words in the original Greek. 2. Why was Abel's sacrifice, which he offered "by faith," accepted; whereas, Cain's was not? In other words, what does it mean to do something "by faith"? See notes above. LESSON SEVENTEEN: Hebrews 11:6-16 - They desire a better, heavenly country As we study these things closely, it makes us also long for that better homeland. 1. What must one believe to be pleasing to God, and if he so believes, what will he be doing? He must believe that God exists. He must be diligently seeking Him. If one truly believes that God is a rewarder of those who diligently seek Him, he will be diligently seeking Him. 2. What action resulted from Noah's faith? Chart #45 - "BY FAITH NOAH..." (Heb. 11:7) 1. WAS DIVINELY WARNED OF THINGS TO COME. Gen. 6:13; Matt. 24:37-39; 2 Pet. 3:5-7 2. MOVED BY GODLY FEAR. Gen. 6:22; Heb. 12:28-29 3. BUILT AN ARK FOR SALVATION. Gen. 7:23; 1 Pet. 3:20-21 4. BY HIS ACTIONS HE CONDEMNED THE WORLD. John 3:19-21; 15:19; 1 John 3:12 5. BY HIS ACTIONS HE BECAME AN HEIR OF THE RIGHTEOUSNESS WHICH IS ACCORDING TO FAITH. Phil. 3:9 Extra Notes: Place Research Question No. 1 here: How did Noah condemn the world by his actions? 1. Righteousness either converts or condemns the wicked. One's righteousness reveals another's wickedness. 2. "Noah did not condemn them as the judge, for God did that. But his actions exemplified that God justly saves the righteous by grace through faith and condemns those who by their own choice refuse to obey! All who respond in obedient faith "condemn the world" when they testify by their actions that serving God is possible, Matt. 12:41-42." (Hebrews, by Robert Harkrider, p. 123) 3. Out of holy fear and respect for God he built an ark out of specific materials and according to specific plans given by God. 4. We need to remember that the overwhelming majority rejected the word in Noah's day. a. "The flood came and destroyed them all." Luke 17:26-27 3. What action resulted from Abraham's faith? "By faith Abraham obeyed" - 11:8-9 Extra Notes: This chapter well illustrates that we must have a faith that works. Gal. 5:6; Heb. 5:9; Rom. 6:17 4. What shows Abraham's trust in God when he went out? "He went out not knowing where he was going" - 11:8b Extra Notes: He put his destiny in God's hands. 5. What kind of city or country did the patriarchs desire? "The city which has foundations whose builder and maker is God." - 11:10 Extra Notes: 1. The patriarchs knew there was a far better land (city), one which the heavenly Father had promised and prepared. 2. The word "foundations" indicates its permanency. They were willing to live without a permanent home on earth because they had faith in a permanent one provided by God. 3. Their example inspires us. 6. Why was Sarah able to receive strength to conceive? "By faith" - 11:11 Extra Notes: "By faith" - By believing the word that was spoken to her. 1. In Gen. 18:9-15, Sarah laughed when she heard that she would bear a son. 2. Nevertheless, she afterward believed the word, and bore a child as was promised by the Lord. 3. She attributed the birth to God by saying "God has made me laugh, so that all who hear will laugh with me." Gen. 21:6-7 4. To those who were healed, Jesus often said, "Your faith has made you well." If they had no faith, they would not have come to Jesus to be healed. 7. What did the patriarchs confess concerning their life here on earth? They confessed they were strangers (foreigners) and pilgrims (sojourners traveling about with no permanent residence) on the earth. - 11:13 Extra Notes: 1. See Gen. 23:1-4 where Abraham confessed that he was a foreigner and a sojourner. a. We, too, are strangers and pilgrims. 1 Pet. 2:11 2. "These all died in faith not having received the promises" - They died without seeing any of the promises fulfilled: innumerable descendants, possession of Canaan, all nations being blessed through their seed. 3. Place Research Question No. 2 here: How does the expression in 11:13 "having seen them afar off" support the basic definition of faith as given in 11:1. a. Faith is the evidence of things not seen; thus, based on the evidence they were able to see them "afar off." Through faith they could see their fulfillment. b. They could see those things through the eye of faith. John 8:56 c. They were able to see beyond this life. 4. They "embraced them" - They embraced the promises. 8. What did their confession plainly declare? "That they seek a homeland" - 11:14 Extra Notes: 1. When one confesses that he is a stranger and pilgrim on the earth (in the true Biblical sense), it shows that he "by faith" is seeking and looking for a better homeland. 9. Could they have returned to the land from which they had come? Yes. They could have returned. - 11:15 10. Why is God not ashamed to be called their God? Since they desire the better country. Extra Notes: 1. Their love of God and desire for a better place prepared by God is what enabled them to persevere. 2. God was not ashamed to be called their God. Gen. 17:7 a. He often designated Himself as "the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob." 3. Later, because of the Jew's wickedness, no doubt, God was ashamed when He was labeled "the God of the Israelites." RESEARCH 1. How did Noah condemn the world by his actions? See under No. 2 above. 2. How does the expression in 11:13 "having seen them afar off" support the basic definition of faith as given in 11:1. See under No. 7 above. Chart #46 - They Looked For A City - Heb. 11:8-22 The Faith of Abraham and Sarah - Heb. 11:8-19 Obeyed, went to a land - Heb. 11:8-10; Gen. 12:1-3; Acts 7:1-5 Believed God's promise - Heb. 11:11-12; Gen. 15:5-6; Rom. 4:18-21 Sacrificed promised son - Heb. 11:17-19; Gen. 22:1-19; James 2:20-24 The Faith of Abraham's Son, Grandson, and Great Grandson - Heb. 11:20-22 Isaac - Gen. 27:26-40 Jacob - Gen. 48 Joseph - Gen. 50:24-25 They Looked Afar Off Recognized they were strangers and pilgrims - 11:13 They could have returned - 11:14-15 God is not ashamed to be called their God - 11:16 LESSON EIGHTEEN: Hebrews 11:17-31 - By faith they were victorious Chart #47 - The Hall of Fame of the Faithful - "By Faith..." (We list the names of those who are mentioned in chapter 11). Abel - vs. 4 Enoch - vs. 5 Noah - vs 7 Abraham - vs. 8-10 Sarah - vs. 11-12 Abraham - vs. 17-19 Isaac - vs. 20 Jacob - vs. 21 Joseph - vs. 22 Moses' parents - vs. 23 Moses - vs. 24-28 The Israelites - vs. 29-30 Rahab - vs. 31 Gideon - vs. 32 Barak - vs. 32 Samson - vs. 32 Jephthah - vs. 32 David - vs. 32 Samuel - vs. 32 1. From 11:17-19, what did Abraham do as the result of his faith? He offered up his only begotten son, accounting that God was able to raise him from the dead. Put Research Question No. 1 here: How in a figurative sense was Isaac received from the dead? Abraham had already determined complete obedience. Thus, in a figurative sense God gave Isaac back from the dead. 2. What did both Isaac and Jacob do concerning their children? Was this merely their wishes? They mentioned future things for their children. Isaac - Gen. 27:27-40; 28:3-4 Jacob - Gen. 48:5-22 This was not merely their own wishes, but were prophecies given by the inspiration of God. 3. How did Joseph show faith in God's promise regarding the future? He made mention of the departure of the children of Israel, and gave instruction concerning his bones. Place Research Question No. 2 here: What lessons can be learned from Joseph's bones? A prophecy was given in Gen. 50:22-26. Joseph's bones lay in Egypt for 300 years; however, the fulfillment finally came. Ex. 13:19; Joshua 24:32 Lessons we can learn regarding Joseph's bones. 1. Mortality - Every one of us must die. 2. No man is indispensable to God's plan. a. Joseph had held the highest position in government, and he was an important tool in God's hand for carrying out the history of Israel. However, he was not indispensable in God's plans. His life did not alter God's course for His people. 3. Hope of deliverance. Gen. 50:24 4. God will do what He says He will do. Gen. 50:24-25 Parallel Lessons from Jesus' grave. 1. Immortality - All men shall live. 2. There is one man who is indispensable in God's plan - Jesus Christ. 3. Christ's death and resurrection are the basis for our hope. a. Joseph's burial in an Egyptian tomb and the prophecy given concerning it, were the basis of Israel's hope of deliverance. The death, burial, and resurrection of Christ are the bases of our hope. 4. His death and resurrection teach us that God will do all He says He will do. 4. From 11:23-28, list the "by faith" things said regarding Moses. Chart #48 - "BY FAITH MOSES..." (Heb. 11:23-28) 1. Was chosen to be hidden by his fearless parents. (Vs. 23) 2. Refused to be called the son of Pharaoh's daughter. (Vs. 24) 3. Chose to suffer affliction...than to enjoy the pleasures of sin. (Vs. 25) 4. Esteemed the reproach of Christ greater riches. (Vs. 26a) 5. Looked to the reward. (Vs. 26b) 6. Chose to forsake Egypt...looking to God. (Vs. 27) 7. Chose to observe the passover to have deliverance instead of death of firstborn. (Vs. 28) Extra Notes: (We add extra notes to our chart above). 1. Was chosen to be hidden by his fearless parents. (Vs. 23) An evil king had commanded that all the male children should be killed, but Amram and Jochebed acted boldly in faith and for three months hid their son in a small ark among reeds of the Nile river. 2. Refused to be called the son of Pharaoh's daughter. (Vs. 24) Pharaoh's daughter found Moses among the reeds and raised him as her own son. Moses was learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians and became mighty in words and deeds. Acts 7:21-22 3. Chose to suffer affliction...than to enjoy the pleasures of sin. (Vs.25) By faith he denounced his honorable position in Egypt, with all of it riches and pleasures, and cast his lot with the afflicted Israelites. It would take a mountain of faith and courage to make this choice. 4. Esteemed the reproach of Christ greater riches. (Vs. 26a) Place Research Question No. 3 here: How did Moses esteem the "reproach of Christ" greater riches than the treasures in Egypt, when Christ had not yet come to the earth? a. There are two possible explanations: i. He suffered reproach because he believed God would send the Messiah and the blessings that were to come with Him. ii. The term "reproach of Christ" was used by the Hebrew writer to refer to any unjust suffering. Truly, Christ is the greatest example of one suffering unjustly. We need to go forth, bearing His reproach. Heb. 13:13 iii. Both of the above are true. 5. Looked to the reward. (Vs. 26b) By faith he knew that the reward of serving God was far greater than anything Egypt had to offer. We, too, need to keep our eyes on the reward of eternal life. 6. Chose to forsake Egypt...looking to God. (Vs. 27) a. Actually, he left Egypt twice: (1) After defending the Israelite (Ex. 2:14-15; Acts 7:23-28); (2) Forty years later when leading the children of Israel out of bondage (Acts 7:36). b. "He did not fear the king. Ex. 7-12. As God's servant, Moses courageously challenged a rebellious Pharaoh. He saw Pharaoh face to face, but God was unseen by him. Yet with confidence and conviction that God was real, Moses fearlessly upheld the glory of God against the hardened heart of Pharaoh." (Hebrews by Robert Harkrider, p. 135) 7. Chose to observe the passover to have deliverance instead of death of firstborn. (Vs. 28) Keeping the passover was an obedient act of faith. Moses instructed the Israelites regarding what to do; and, believing Moses' word, they responded so that their firstborn would not be destroyed. 5. Which verse shows that the pleasures of sin are only passing and temporary at best? Verse 25 Extra Notes: 1. Usually, what little enjoyment that sinners receive is over in a few moments. Job 20:5 2. And, their sinful lives are very short. Psalm 73:18-19; Luke 12:19-20 6. What did Rahab do as the result of her faith? "She received the spies with peace." Extra Notes: 1. Rahab plainly declared her faith in the true God. Joshua 2:9-11 2. She begged the spies to spare her and her household. Joshua 2:12-14 3. Indeed, she and her household were not destroyed when Jericho fell. Joshua 6:22-25 4. She is praised in the N.T., both for her faith and works. James 2:25 5. She forever stands as an example of God's mercy and grace on all those who serve Him by faith. 6. She is thought to be the one listed in the lineage of Jesus. Matt. 1:5 RESEARCH 1. How in a figurative sense was Isaac received from the dead? See Notes under 1 above. 2. What lessons can be learned from Joseph's bones? See under No. 3 above. 3. How did Moses esteem the "reproach of Christ" greater riches than the treasures in Egypt, when Christ had not yet come to the earth? See under chart notes No. 4 above. 4. Explain how the walls of Jericho fell down "by faith." 1. They trusted that if they did as God instructed, it would accomplish the divinely intended purpose. 2. God, by His grace, had "given" Jericho to them (Joshua 6:2); yet; they still had to do the things commanded. 3. They were to march around the city once each day for six days, and seven times on the seventh day; thus, they marched around the city thirteen times in all. 4. They were to keep silent while marching; but, when the priests blew the trumpets on their thirteenth circuit, they were to give a great shout. Joshua 6:1-16 5. They did so, and the wall fell down flat. Joshua 6:20 6. Thus, by faith and obedience the walls fell. LESSON NINETEEN: Hebrews 11:32-12:3 - Surrounded by a great cloud of witnesses Chart #48 - "AND WHAT MORE SHALL I SAY?" - (Heb. 11:32-40 1. THE PEOPLE OF FAITH (11:32). 2. THE PRODUCT OF FAITH (11:33-34). 3. THE PERSECUTION OF FAITH (11:35-38). 4. THE PROFIT OF FAITH (11:39-40). 1. Match the following names with the list below: (a) Isaac; (b) Jacob; (c) Joseph; (d) Moses; (e) Israelites; (f) Rahab; (g) Gideon; (h) Barak; (i) Jephthah; (j) David ____1. Was the son of a harlot. ____2. Gave orders concerning his bones. ____3. Defeated a great army with 300 men. ____4. Esteemed the reproach of Christ greater. ____5. Was the sweet psalmist of Israel. ____6. Blessed his twin sons regarding the future. ____7. Blessed each of the sons of Joseph. ____8. Welcomed the spies in peace. ____9. Passed through the Sea as by dry land. ____10. Was captain of the host under Deborah. 1. i; 2. c; 3. g; 4. d; 5. j; 6. a; 7. b; 8. f; 9. e; 10. h Extra Notes: 1. He did not have enough time to fully describe all those of great faith. He names only a few. a. Gideon, Judges 6-8. He defeated the Midianites with only 300 men. b. Barak, Judges 4-5. He was the captain of the host under Deborah the Judge. He defeated the Canaanites. c. Jephthah, Judges 11-12. He was the Judge who made the rash vow. He defeated the Ammonites. d. David. He occupies much space in the O.T., 1 Sam. 16-31; 2 Sam. 1 Kings 1-2. He probably was Israel's greatest king. There were many prophecies which stated that the Messiah would descend through him. e. Samuel, 1 Sam. 1-16. He was the last Judge and the first among the school of the prophets. f. The prophets. Much could be said about the great faith of many of the prophets - Elijah, Elisha, Jeremiah, Amos, Danial, Zachariah, etc. 2. Why did those who were tortured not accept deliverance? "That they might obtain a better resurrection." - 11:35 Extra Notes: 1. By many short statements, he reminds us of what those, who through their faith, accomplished and endured. a. "Subdued kingdoms." There are many examples of this in the O.T., especially in the book of Judges. b. "Worked righteousness." Correct justice was administered. Consider the examples of David. 2 Sam. 8:15. He destroyed the man who said he had slain the Lord's anointed (2 Sam. 1:13-16). He destroyed the two who had killed Ishbosheth upon his bed (2 Sam. 4:8-12). c. "Obtained promies." Not a word failed which the Lord had promised. Joshua 21:43-45 d. "Stopped the mouths of lions." Daniel - Dan. 6. e. "Quenched the violence of fire." - Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego - Dan. 3. f. "Escaped the edge of the sword." - Many of those who went into battle returned home safely. Many of the prophets escaped being slain. g. "Out of weakness were made strong." Hezekiah humbly prayed for deliverance from the Assyrians and was so blessed. 2 Kings 19; Isaiah 37 i. 185,000 Assyrians soldiers died during the night. 2 Kings 19:35 h. "Became valiant in battle." - David conquered Goliath - 1 Sam. 17. Jonathan defeated the Philistines. 1 Sam. 14:6-14 i. "Turned to flight the armies of the aliens." There are many examples of this in the O.T. j. "Woman received their dead raised to life again." Place Research Question No. 1 here: Find an example of "Women received their dead raised to life again." i. Elijah raised the widow' son. 1 Kings 17:8-24 Through faith she aided Elijah and was blessed by receiving her son back from the dead. Jesus spoke of this woman in Luke 4:25-26. ii. Elisha raised the son of a Shunammite woman. 2 Kings 4:18- 37 k. "Were tortured, not accepting deliverance." They refused to deny God and be released because they wanted to obtain a better resurrection. l. "Had trial of mockings and scourgings...chains and imprisonment." They were reviled, beaten, and unjustly imprisoned. m. "Stoned, sawn in two, were tempted, were slain with the sword." Tradition says that the prophet Isaiah was sawn in two. n. "Wandered about in sheepskins and goatskins, being destitute, afflicted, tormented." They lived under miserable and lowly conditions. 3. Who was unworthy of these great people of faith? "The world." - 11:38 Extra Notes: These great people of faith were far better than the world deserved. Instead of the world gladly receiving them, they unmercifully persecuted them; thus, the world was unworthy of these great people. 4. From 11:39-40, (and the context of the entire epistle) what is the "better thing" God has provided for us? The New Testament means of redemption. Extra Notes: 1. Even though these great people received a good testimony through faith, they did not receive the promise fulfilled in the Messiah. 2. God had something better in store for us; namely, the blessings of the gospel made possible through Christ. 3. They were not made perfect apart from us; that is, they were not made perfect different from the way we are. They were not made perfect apart from the N.T. means of redemption which we enjoy. 5. On the basis of the great cloud of witnesses, what does the writer encourage us to do? Chart #49 - Since We Are Surrounded By So Great A Cloud of Witnesses - (Heb. 11:1-2) 1. Lay aside every weight. 2. The sin which so easily ensnares us. 3. Run with endurance the race set before us. 4. Looking to Jesus. Extra Notes: 1. The Christian runs the race of life that he might receive the glory and honor which comes from God. 1 Cor. 9:24-25; 1 Pet. 5:4 2. "Great cloud of witnesses." Those many people of faith are called "witnesses" because their lives testify of the power, value, and result of faith. 3. "Lay aside every weight." Place Research Question No. 2 here: From what is the expression "lay aside every weight" probably taken? a. Those who trained for the Olympics wore weights on their legs. On the day of the race they removed their weights. b. Things that hinder our efforts in living the Christian life should be laid aside; too many time-consuming secular activities, damaging influences such as corrupt movies, etc. 4. "And the sin which so easily ensnares us." - Some think that this refers to the sin of unbelief which was mentioned in the first part of the book; however, the specific sin is not mentioned here. It can refer to any sin that might easily ensnare us; e.g., a sinful habit of some kind. 5. "And let us run with endurance the race that is set before us." The thought points to the marathon, the long-distance race rather than the one-hundred meter or two-hundred meter races. Christians are not to give a quick burst and then quit, but are to steadily run toward the goal. Faithfulness to the end of the race is required. Ezek. 18:24 6. From 12:2-3, on what basis does he encourage us regarding "looking unto Jesus"? Chart #50 1. He is the author and finisher of our faith. 2. Because of the joy set before Him, He endured the cross. 3. He despised the shame. 4. He sat down on the right hand of the throne of God. 5. He endured the hostility of sinners against Himself. Extra Notes: (A few added notes regarding the above chart) 1. He is the author and finisher of our faith. He is the originator and perfecter of our faith. 2. Because of the joy set before Him, He endured the cross. Place Research Question No. 3 here: What was the "joy" that was set before Him? a. His coronation to the glorious throne of the Father. Dan. 7:13-14; Luke 24:26; 1 Pet. 1:11; Phil. 2:8-11 b. Let us look to His example of sacrificing in order to obtain the reward. 3. He despised the shame. The cross was a dreadful, shameful ordeal which He despised. In spite of all the shame connected with crucifixion, He endured it. 4. He sat down on the right hand of the throne of God. This has been mentioned several times throughout the book of Hebrews. 5. He endured the hostility of sinners against Himself. He endured not only the painful death of the cross, but all the blasphemy and reviling heaped on Him by sinners. Matt. 27:38-43; 1 Pet. 2:21-24 7. What does considering Jesus prevent us from not doing? "Lest you become weary and discouraged in your souls." - 12:3 NKJV "Lest ye be wearied and faint in your minds." - 12:3 KJV "So that you will not grow weary and lose heart." - 12:3 NASV Extra Notes: 1. We need to look to Jesus' example of endurance, self-denial, and suffering reproach. a. We will run the race successfully only if we follow in His steps. b. We can gain the victory through Him. 1 Cor. 15:57; Rom. 8:37 RESEARCH 1. Find an example of "Women received their dead raised to life again." See notes under No. 2 above. 2. From what is the expression "lay aside every weight" probably taken? See under No. 5 above. 3. What was the "joy" that was set before Him? See under No. 6 above. LESSON TWENTY: Hebrews 12:4-17 - Do not despise the chastening of the Lord The word "chasten" is a key word in this text. It is used eight times in various forms in verses 5-11. It refers to the "correction, discipline, and training which makes disciples." Notice that from verse 5 onward the writer does not specify the form in which the discipline comes to us. It is possible that he is referring to persecutions as in verses 3 and 4. However, it appears that he is referring to the sufferings and hardships of all kinds which come to us through the providence of God and are designed to make us better disciples. 1. From 12:5-11, what analogy is made between the chastening God gives and that of an earthly father? 1. Good parents chasten their children. Vs. 5-8 2. Respect (reverence) is given to parents and God. Vs. 9 3. Our parents, for a brief time, chasten us in ways which seem best to them. God does it for our profit. Vs. 10 Extra Notes: 1. Good parents chasten their children. Eph. 6:4; Prov. 13:24; 23:13-14 2. Respect (reverence) is given to parents and God. a. Normally, children respect the parents who try to discipline them. Most children know that their parents have their best interest at heart. b. Our respect for God should exceed that shown toward parents. 3. God is not limited to time and is infinite in His judgment; thus, His actions are far superior to that of any human being. 2. From 12:5-11, what are the blessings which come to those who endure the chastening of the Lord? 1. It makes us His children. Vs. 5-8 2. By being in subjection to the Father, we live. Vs. 9 3. It is for our profit so that we might be holy like Him. Vs. 10 4. It yields the peaceable fruit of righteousness to those who are trained by it. Vs. 11 Extra Notes: 1. It makes us His children. Vs. 5-8 a. In verse 8, the writer mentions "illegitimate sons" who are not disciplined. We have a lot of those nowadays! When children are deprived of proper discipline, they become horrible, evil children, and often end up as juvenile delinquents. 2. By being in subjection to the Father, we live. Vs. 9 a. The discipline and correction that the Father gives produces life. b. Christians must bear up under the various trials and afflictions which come through the providence of God as a means of God's discipline. c. Christians who listen to the correction of the Word will obtain life. Rev. 3:19 3. It is for our profit, so that we might be holy like Him. Vs. 10 a. God desires that we be partakers of His nature. 2 Pet. 1:3-4; Rom. 8:29 4. It yields the peaceable fruit of righteousness to those who are trained by it. Vs. 11 a. "Now no chastening seems to be joyful for the present, but painful..." It is painful to both the parents and the children. b. "Nevertheless, afterward it yields the peaceable fruit of righteousness to those who have been trained by it." Thus, it is very valuable, both in the parent/child relationship, and in the God/child relationship. 3. Which verses show that we should shake off weariness and laziness, and press forward? Verses 12-13 Extra Notes: 1. "Therefore" - Since chastening is for our benefit, take courage and be strong. 2. Similar to Eph. 5:14, these are beautiful poetical verses. 3. Verse 12 gives the idea of weary traveler, and verse 13 pictures a body wrought with aches and pains. 4. The verses are teaching us to shake off weariness, laziness, and discouragement and push on toward greater faithfulness. 4. What must we pursue to be able to see God? Peace with all men and holiness. Vs. 14 Extra Notes: 1. "Pursue peace." Peace does not come automatically, but must be pursued and sought after. Everyone would like to worship with a church that has peace. Peace comes only when all of the members endeavor to maintain it. Matt. 5:8-9; Eph. 4:3 a. When there is genuine love among brethren, they can work through a mountain of severe problems. 2. As we have seen, God disciplines so that we can be "partakers of His holiness." We are to endeavor to be holy like God so that someday we can be with God. 5. List the three "lests" given in 12:15-16. 1. "Lest anyone fall short of the grace of God." Vs. 15a 2. "Lest any root of bitterness springing up cause trouble." vs. 15b 3. "Lest there be any fornicator or profane person." Vs. 16a Extra Notes: 1. "Lest anyone fall short of the grace of God." Vs. 15a a. "Looking diligently" - This implies that we are to be looking after one another. b. Certainly, one can fall from the grace of God. 2. "Lest any root of bitterness springing up cause trouble." vs. 15b a. Place Research Question No. 4. What analogy does the writer make to a bitter or poisonous root? As a poisonous plant sends up shoots from it roots (e.g., poison ivy), bitterness can spring up and cause trouble. b. Sometimes in our families and in the Lord's church bitterness will spring up. We need to be on guard. 3. "Lest there be any fornicator or profane person." Vs. 16a a. A "profane" person is one who has no regard for holy things; thus, he is wicked, godless. 6. What lessons can be learned from the example of Esau? 1. Esau sold his birthright for "one morsel of food" - a very cheap price indeed. Gen. 25:29-34 a. The birthright included the great spiritual promises which were given to Abraham and Isaac. They were passed on through Jacob who valued them. 2. The Scriptures says, "Thus Esau despised his birthright." Gen. 25:34 a. The word "despise" means "to make common or profane"; thus, he regarded his birthright as nothing, as of no value. 3. We need to place proper value on spiritual things. a. We should never sell, lose, or neglect our spiritual treasurers for things of lesser worth. Extra Notes: 4. "For he found no place of repentance" - There are two possibilities here. a. No place for repentance was found in Esau's heart though he sought it diligently with tears. He was more angry with Jacob than regretting his own mistake. b. The ASV translates this verse: "...He found no place for a change of mind in his father, though he sought it diligently with tears." The phrase "in his father" is in italics, showing that it is not in the original. 5. "Esau could not reverse the effects of the decision. If we are profane and barter away our eternal inheritance for momentary earthly pleasure, there will come the time when nothing can be done to undo the harm. Though we seek the eternal inheritance with tears at the final judgment, the decision we made in this life will be irrevocable." (Hebrews, by Johnny Stringer, p. 64) RESEARCH 1. In what way is 12:4 also true of us? We, too, have not resisted to bloodshed. Nearly all of us have not shed blood that resulted from being Christians. 2. From what O.T. passage are 12:5-6 taken? Prov. 3:11-12 3. List other verses which show that God is the Father of our spirits. Num. 27:16; Eccl. 12:7; Isa. 42:5; 57:16; Zech. 12:1; Acts 17:25,28 4. What analogy does the writer make to a bitter or poisonous root? See under No. 5 above. LESSON TWENTY-ONE: Hebrews 12:18-29 - We have come to Mount Zion 1. State briefly the point (or purpose) of the Hebrew writer's contrast between verses 18-21 and 22-24? In Heb. 12:18-24, the Hebrew writer contrasts the characteristics of the Mount Zion to which we have now come with that of the mountain where the Law was given. His purpose is to cause us to grasp the greatness of our Mount Zion. Chart #49 - The Mountains Contrasted - Heb. 12:18-24 You Are Not Come To: The mountain that may be touched That burned with fire Blackness and darkness and tempest The sound of the trumpet Begged that the word not be spoken They could not endure Anything touching the mountain was to be destroyed A terrifying sight You Are Come To: Mount Zion City of the living God The heavenly Jerusalem Innumerable company of angels The general assembly Church of the firstborn (registered in heaven) God the Judge of all The spirits of just men made perfect Jesus the Mediator of the new covenant The blood of sprinkling (speaks better things) 2. What entreaty was made by those who heard the trumpet and the voice of words? "That the words should not be spoken to them anymore." - 12:19 Extra Notes: 12:18-20 - The whole mountain was on fire and quaked violently. A trumpet sounded louder and louder, and God began to speak His Law. The people were terror stricken and did not want God to speak to them anymore. Ex. 19:16-19; 20:18-22 3. How did Moses react when he saw the terrifying things on the mountain? He said, "I am exceedingly afraid and trembling." - 12:21 There is no recording of this in the O.T.; thus, we have additional information from the Holy Spirit. This is done several times in the N.T.; e.g., 2 Tim. 3:8; Jude 14 Extra Notes: He now gives a beautiful description of the Mount Zion to which we have come. 12:22 1. "But you have come to Mount Zion and the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem" - We have not come to the literal Zion and Jerusalem, but to the true dwelling place of God in heaven. a. We are governed by the laws spoken from heaven. Heb. 12:25 b. As the throne of David was in literal Jerusalem, the throne of Christ is in heavenly Jerusalem. Heaven is the headquarters of the King of the spiritual kingdom of which we are citizens. 2. "To an innumerable company of angels" - Literally, "myriads, tens of thousands." a. Again, this shows that verse 22 probably refers to heaven rather than to the church on earth. 12:23 1. "General assembly" - Literally, "public festival gathering." Verse 23 points to the church or kingdom here on earth. 2. "Church of the firstborn who are registered in heaven" - Place Research Question No. 2 here: Is one handling aright the Scriptures when he uses 12:23 to teach that the church should be called "the church of the firstborn"; that is, "the church of Christ who was the firstborn"? a. The term "firstborn" is plural in the Greek; thus, it is literally the church of the "firstborn ones." b. All of us who are Christians have the birthright, not through family descent, but through registration in heaven. Phil. 3:20-21 3. "To God the Judge of all" - Not as the Israelites who were terrified at Mount Sinai, we are encouraged to come boldly to the throne of grace. Heb. 4:16 4. "To the spirits of just men made perfect." - This refers to the O.T. worthies and all the faithful of the ages. 5. "To Jesus the Mediator of the new covenant" - 1 Tim. 2:5 6. "To the blood of sprinkling that speaks better things than that of Abel." - Place Research Question No. 3 here: How does the blood of Jesus speak better than that of Abel? a. The blood of Abel cried for vengeance (Gen. 4:10-11), but the blood of Christ speaks of mercy, redemption, and forgiveness. 4. What does "Yet once more" indicate? Place Research Question No. 4 here because these two question go together: From 12:25-29, (and the context of the entire epistle) what are those things which cannot be shaken? "When God spoke from Sinai, 'His voice shook the earth,' Ex. 19:18. When the temple less glorious than Solomon's was built after the Babylonian captivity, God promised, 'yet once more' He would shake not only the earth but heaven also, Hag. 2:6-7. The Hebrew writer then explains its application, 12:27...Judaism, with all its splendor, was for a temporary purpose. That temple, the first covenant, the Levitical priesthood, etc. were all destined to pass away, Gal. 3:23-25. God has now established that which is eternal and imperishable." (From Hebrews, By Robert Harkrider, p. 150) Extra Notes: 12:27 - "Now this, 'Yet once more,' indicates the removal of those things that are being shaken, as of things that are made (the O.T. things, DJR), that the things which cannot be shaken may remain (the N.T. things, DJR)." 1. These verses indicate that God would not make just a small alteration, but a total removal of the Israelites' heaven and earth. 12:28 - "Therefore, since we are receiving a kingdom which cannot be shaken" - Thus, we have received that which cannot be shaken. 1. It fulfills Daniel 2:44 as well as the "yet once more" prophecy in Hag. 2:6. 2. Most commentaries teach that the "yet once more" refers to the coming destruction of the earth and the ushering in of the eternal kingdom. However, that interpretation does not seem to fit this context. 5. In what manner are we to serve God? "With reverence and godly fear." - 12:28 Extra Notes: 12:28 1. "Let us" - This is his often used means of encouragement and exhortation. Due to what God has done, let us consider our fearful responsibility. 2. The word "reverence" is an unusual one in this verse. It is the Greek word "aidos" and means "the idea of downcast eyes); bashfulness, i.e. (towards men), modesty or (towards God) awe:--reverence, shamefacedness." (Strong) a. This reminds us of the publican in Luke 18:13. b. We need to be humble and lowly before the Lord, being aware of our weaknesses and unworthiness, and pleading for His mercy. Micah 6:8 12:29 1. Ex. 24:17; Num. 11:1; 16:35; Deut. 4:24; 9:3; Psalm 50:3; 97:3; Isa. 66:15-16; Dan. 7:9-10; 2 Thess. 1:7-9; Heb. 10:27 RESEARCH 1. From 2 Sam. 5:6-7 and Rev. 14:1-5, what further things do we learn about Mount Zion? Jerusalem was called Zion. Heaven is called Mount Zion. 2. Is one handling aright the Scriptures when he uses 12:23 to teach that the church should be called "the church of the firstborn"; that is, "the church of Christ who was the firstborn"? See under number 3 above. 3. How does the blood of Jesus speak better than that of Abel? See under 12:23 above. 4. From 12:25-29, (and the context of the entire epistle) what are those things which cannot be shaken? See under number 4 above. 5. Along with 12:28, list other passages which show that the kingdom is in existence now. Col. 1:12-14; Rev. 1:9 Those blood-bought individuals in the kingdom (Col. 1:12-14) are the blood-bought individuals who are the church (Acts 20:28).
LESSON TWENTY-TWO: Hebrews 13:1-14 - Let us go outside the
camp bearing His reproach In chapter 13, the writer of Hebrews gives his final exhortations and personal remarks. 1. Whom were they admonished to remember? Strangers - 13:2 Prisoners - 13:3a Those who are mistreated - 13:3b Extra Notes: 13:1 - It is the love that grows out of our common relationship. 13:2 1. The phrase "entertain strangers" is from one word in the Greek and is the word which is often translated "hospitality." 2. "For by so doing some have unwittingly entertained angels" Place Research Question No. 1 here: From 13:2, to whom was the writer referring when he said, "some have unwittingly entertained angels"? a. We have the examples of Abraham and Lot. Gen. 18:1-22; 19:1 13:3 1. "Remember the prisoners as if chained with them" - We can both show sympathy and visit them whenever possible. Matt. 25:36 2. "Those who are mistreated" - Christians are often mistreated in a variety of ways. 3. "Since you yourselves are in the body also." - The word "the" (the definite article) points to the church. The Hebrews were fellow members of the body of Christ. 2. From 13:4, what will happen to all fornicators and adulterers? "God will judge" - This implies that God will punish them in the way ordained by Him. Extra Notes: 1. To say the least, one cannot build a happy marriage on adultery. 2. Place Research Question No. 2 here: What is the meaning of the word "fornicators" which is used in 13:4? a. The KJV has the word "whoremongers" in the place of "fornicators" (NKJ, NASV). Actually, the KJV is the better translation because it refers to a "male" fornicator in the Greek. b. Thus, it refers to men who are either homosexuals or who pursue adulterous women. 3. What promise helps us to be content? "I will never leave you nor forsake you." - From Joshua 1:5 Extra Notes: 13:5 1. "Let your conduct be without covetousness" - Do not have an undue desire for wealth or earthly possessions. 2. "This does not forbid all lawful endeavors to improve our own condition and that of others. Such an injunction would be wholly inconsistent with what is plainly taught in many other passages of Scripture. See, for example, Rom. 12:11; Eph. 4:28; 2 Thess. 3:11. But the meaning of the Apostle is simply this, that such should be our trust and confidence in God, that we would be satisfied with our condition, be it what it may; knowing that if we are only faithful, God will cause all things to work together for good. Be diligent in business; do all that you can lawfully and consistently to improve your own condition and to promote the happiness of others; and then with calmness and resignation leave all the consequences to God." (Commentary on Hebrews, by R. Milligan, p. 373) 13:6 1. We need to express the same words as the Psalmist who praised God when he was delivered from his enemies. See Psalm 118:6 and its context. 2. If God be for us, who can be against us? Rom. 8:31 13:7 1. "Remember those who rule over you" - The word "rule" means literally, "guides, leaders." Thus, it refers to any who faithfully lead in the way of life. 2. "Considering the outcome of their conduct." - Their righteous conduct lead them to a praiseworthy end. 13:8 1. As Christ is revealed in the New Testament, that's how He will always be. a. The past leaders may be gone, but the Christ they trusted, and taught us to trust, remains unchangeable. 2. Place Research Question No. 3 here: Those of the various "Holiness" denominations use 13:8 to prove that Jesus continues to give miraculous gifts today. How would you answer? a. The verse means that Jesus is the same in character, not that He always does the same. Jesus is the same today in character as He was when He walked here on earth, but that doesn't mean He is still working miracles in the same way He did then. Jesus forgave sins by saying, "You sins are forgiven you." However, that is not the way He forgives sins today; that is, by personally telling one that he is forgiven. Also, Jesus died on the cross, and though He is the same, He does not die on a cross today. 4. What does the writer admonish regarding doctrine? "Do not be carried about with various and strange doctrines" - 13:9 Continuing to trust the unchangeable Christ, we should not be carried away from Him by false doctrines. Extra Notes: 1. In our time there are many more "various and strange doctrines" than there were in the time when Hebrews was written. 2. Strange doctrines (something new, something different) have their appeal to many people and they are constantly pursuing them. a. When we are led away from the doctrine of Christ, we no longer have fellowship with the Father and His Son. 2 John 9 5. It is good for our hearts to be established with what, and not with what? "By grace, not with foods" - 13:9 Extra Notes: 1. The system of grace (the N.T. system) strengthens the heart. 2. "Not with foods which have not profited those who have been occupied with them." John 6:27; 1 Tim. 4:1-3; Col. 2:23 a. To the Hebrews, this would exclude things under the Old Law, and to the Gentiles, it would exclude things which had been handed down through their pagan religions. 3. Consider the application to modern religions who have their kitchens and fellowship halls. a. The following announcement appeared in a recent bulletin of the Salt Lake Valley Church of Christ: "PLEASE DON'T FEED THE ANTS: Anyone who brings food into the building is asked to be mindful of the fact that we have a severe ant problem. Please be sure to clean up the area in which food is served and make sure any to be left is sealed in air-tight containers." (THE SALT LAKE MESSENGER, from the Salt Lake Valley Church of Christ, May 30, 1993). b. We have a better solution for their ant problem. 1 Cor. 11:34 13:10 Consider Research Question No. 4 here: To what "altar" is the writer referring in 13:10? 1. The Hebrew writer uses the term "altar" (13:10) to figuratively refer to the sacrificial service of Christ, the cross and all that flows from it. 2. Those involved in Judaism had no right to eat at this altar; that is, they could not participate in the blessings the sacrifice of Christ brings. 3. We have a right to eat at this altar. Figuratively, we partake of the benefits of the sacrifice of Christ. 13:11-12 Consider Research Question No. 5 here: Why did Jesus suffer "outside the gate"? 1. Just as the animals were taken without the camp (Lev. 16:27), so was Christ (Heb. 13:11-12). 2. Jesus suffered outside of the city of Jerusalem (John 19:17-22). This showed the Hebrew Christians, and us as well, that Jesus was their sin offering. 6. Why should we "bear His reproach" as stated by the writer of Hebrews? Verse 14 Extra Notes: 13:13 - To the Hebrews, this would involve leaving the camp of Judaism. To us, it involves leaving all things evil, false religions, evil companions, etc. 13:14 - All things on this earth are temporal and will pass away. 2 Cor. 4:18; 2 Pet. 3:10 RESEARCH 1. From 13:2, to whom was the writer referring when he said, "some have unwittingly entertained angels"? See under No. 1 above. 2. What is the meaning of the word "fornicators" which is used in 13:4? See under No. 2 above. 3. Those of the various "Holiness" denominations use 13:8 to prove that Jesus continues to give miraculous gifts today. How would you answer? See under 13:8 above. 4. To what "altar" is the writer referring in 13:10? See under 13:10 above. 5. Why did Jesus suffer "outside the gate"? See under 13:11-12 above. LESSON TWENTY-THREE: Hebrews 13:15-25 - His final exhortations 1. What are we to do continually? Verse 15 Extra Notes: 1. "That is the fruit of our lips, giving thanks to God." - We should continually give the praise of thanksgiving. 2. The expression "giving thanks" can also be translated "confessing." a. We need to give thanks and confess God in our prayers. Phil. 4:6 b. We need to do it in our singing. Psalm 66:1-4 c. This is part of our "spiritual sacrifices" that we offer up to God. 1 Pet. 2:5 2. What should we not forget? Verse 16 - Let us remember to aid other people. In so doing, we lay up treasures in heaven, and build a good foundation for the time to come. Matt. 6:19-20; 1 Tim. 6:19 3. Why should Christians submit to those who have the rule over them? 1. "For they watch out for your souls" - 13:17a 2. It is to our advantage. 13:17b a. When we submit to those who lead us, it not only works for a peaceful, pleasant situation, but it works toward our salvation. 1 Pet. 5:5-6 Extra Notes: 1. "They watch our for your souls" - Place Research Question No. 1 here: What does the word "rule" in 13:17 mean? Would it also apply to other god-fearing leaders in the congregation? a. The word "rule" is the same one used in verses 7 and 24, and means literally, "guides, leaders." Thus, it refers to any who faithfully lead in the way of life. 2. Though the "rule" can include other leaders, it definitely refers to elders. a. Being an elder is a grave responsibility. b. When considering qualifications, a good question to ask is, "Do I want that man watching over my soul. 3. The KJV is somewhat confusing on this verse. It says, "...For they watch for your souls, as they that must give account, that they may do it with joy, and not with grief: for that is unprofitable for you." a. It seems to indicate that the rulers will give an account in the judgment with either grief or joy. However, most of the modern translations do not allow this as a possibility. The "ruling" is either with grief or joy, not their account in judgment. 4. Why was it proper for the Hebrews to pray for the writer and the others? Verse 17 - Because of their good conscience and desire to live honorably in all things, they were fit subjects for prayer. Verse 18 - They were to also pray that he might be restored to them the sooner. 5. What did he wish the God of peace to do for them? Verse 21 Extra Notes: 1. Verses 20 and 21 are his wishes or prayers for them. 2. First, he describes the God to whom he makes his request. a. He is the God "who brought up our Loud Jesus from the dead" - This is the first actual mention of the resurrection, though it is presupposed in many verses; e.g., the living High Priest. b. Jesus is the great shepherd of the sheep. He occupies this position because of the blood He shed. His blood ratifies and validates, and seals the New Covenant. Matt. 26:28; Heb. 12:24 3. Secondly, he makes his request for them. a. "Make you complete...working in you" - This is a fitting conclusion to his book. b. He desires that God will work in them, causing them to faithfully do His will. Phil. 2:13 c. His request shows his deep love and concern for their spiritual well-being. 4. Place Research Question No. 3 here: Give other passages which are similar to 13:20-21, which show that God is able and willing to perfect the faithful and bring them home to heaven with Him. a. 2 Thess. 2:16-17; 1 Pet. 5:10-11; Jude 24 6. How did he label (or describe) his weighty and important epistle? "Word of exhortation" - He urges the brethren to suffer or bear with the word of exhortation he has given. "For I have written to you in few words" - He gave some weighty and important matters "in few words." The epistle was "brief" in view of the profound subjects he discussed. Much more could have been said about them. 7. Along with whom did he want to come and visit them? Verse 23 - He hoped to visit them with Timothy. 8. What was his final wish for them? Verse 25 - He wishes that God would graciously favor them, and us as well, with His blessings. Thus, he closes his "word of exhortation," showing the one time for all time sacrifice of Christ (the blood of the everlasting covenant), and wishing God's blessings on all the faithful. RESEARCH 1. What does the word "rule" in 13:17 mean? Would it also apply to other god-fearing leaders in the congregation? See under No. 3 above. 2. Define the word "everlasting" in 13:20. What does it tell us regarding future covenants? The word "everlasting" means "eternal, forever, everlasting." Thus, it shows that the covenant of Jesus Christ will never be replaced with another. 3. Give other passages which are similar to 13:20-21, which show that God is able and willing to perfect the faithful and bring them home to heaven with Him. See under No. 5 above. 4. What in the latter part of the epistle seems to indicate that Paul is the writer of the epistle of Hebrews? When Timothy, Paul's close companion, was released from prison, he hoped that the two could visit them. He sends greetings from Italy. 5. Has the study of the book of Hebrews increased and enriched your faith?